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Yifei Duan, Carlito Lagman, Raleigh Ems and Nicholas C. Bambakidis

OBJECTIVE

The exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cerebral aneurysm formation remain unclear. Asymmetrical local vascular geometry may play a role in aneurysm formation and progression. The object of this study was to investigate the association between the geometric asymmetry of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and the presence of MCA aneurysms and associated high-risk features.

METHODS

Using a retrospective case-control study design, the authors examined MCA anatomy in all patients who had been diagnosed with an MCA aneurysm in the period from 2008 to 2017 at the University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center. Geometric features of the MCA ipsilateral to MCA aneurysms were compared with those of the unaffected contralateral side (secondary control group). Then, MCA geometry was compared between patients with MCA aneurysms and patients who had undergone CTA for suspected vascular pathology but were ultimately found to have normal intracranial vasculature (primary control group). Parent vessel and aneurysm morphological parameters were measured, calculated, and compared between case and control groups. Associations between geometric parameters and high-risk aneurysm features were identified.

RESULTS

The authors included 247 patients (158 cases and 89 controls) in the study. The aneurysm study group consisted of significantly more women and smokers than the primary control group. Patients with MCA bifurcation aneurysms had lower parent artery inflow angles (p = 0.01), lower parent artery tortuosity (p < 0.01), longer parent artery total length (p = 0.03), and a significantly greater length difference between ipsilateral and contralateral prebifurcation MCAs (p < 0.01) than those in primary controls. Type 2 MCA aneurysms (n = 89) were more likely to be associated with dome irregularity or a daughter sac and were more likely to have a higher cumulative total of high-risk features than type 1 MCA aneurysms (n = 69).

CONCLUSIONS

Data in this study demonstrated that a greater degree of parent artery asymmetry for MCA aneurysms is associated with high-risk features. The authors also found that the presence of a long and less tortuous parent artery upstream of an MCA aneurysm is a common phenotype that is associated with a higher risk profile. The aneurysm parameters are easily measurable and are novel radiographic biomarkers for aneurysm risk assessment.

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Carlito Lagman, Vera Ong, Lawrance K. Chung, Lekaa Elhajjmoussa, Christina Fong, Anthony C. Wang, Quinton Gopen and Isaac Yang

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study is to present an illustrative case of pediatric superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) and to systematically review the current published literature in the pediatric population.

METHODS

An electronic search of the Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane, and Embase databases was performed by 2 independent authors through January 2017. Search term combinations included “pediatrics,” “children,” “canal,” and “dehiscence.” Inclusion criteria were as follows: English, full-text clinical studies, case reports, and case series describing pediatric patient(s) (younger than 18 years) with CT evidence of SSCD. Baseline patient demographic characteristics, clinical presentations, dehiscence characteristics, management strategies, and outcome data were extracted.

RESULTS

A total of 14 studies involving 122 patients were included in the quantitative synthesis. The patients’ mean age was 7.22 years. Male predominance was observed (approximate male-to-female ratio of 1.65:1). Neurodevelopmental disorders were common (n = 14, 11.5%). Auditory signs and symptoms were more common than vestibular signs and symptoms. Hearing loss (n = 62, 50.8%) was the most common auditory symptom and an indicator for imaging evaluation. Vertigo was the most common vestibular symptom (n = 8, 6.6%). Hearing aids were recommended in 8 cases (6.6%), and surgical repair was performed in 1 case (0.8%). Symptom outcomes and follow-up durations were infrequently reported.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ data suggest that in pediatric SSCD, males are more commonly affected than females. This is different than the adult population in which females are predominantly affected. A history of otologic and/or neurodevelopmental abnormalities was common. There was a preponderance of auditory symptoms in this age group. Conservative management was favored in the majority.

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Carlito Lagman, Vera Ong, Thien Nguyen, Yasmine Alkhalid, John P. Sheppard, Prasanth Romiyo, Daniel Azzam, Giyarpuram N. Prashant, Reza Jahan and Isaac Yang

OBJECTIVE

Meningiomas that appear hypervascular on neuroimaging could be amenable to preoperative embolization. However, methods for measuring hypervascularity have not been described, nor has the benefit of preoperative embolization been adjudicated. The objective of this study was to show a relationship between flow void volume (measured on MRI) and intraoperative estimated blood loss (EBL) in nonembolized meningiomas.

METHODS

The authors performed volumetric analyses of 51 intracranial meningiomas (21 preoperatively embolized) resected at their institution. Through the use of image segmentation software and a voxel-based segmentation method, flow void volumes were measured on T2-weighted MR images. This metric was named the Meningioma Vascularity Index (MVI). The primary outcomes were intraoperative EBL and perioperative blood transfusion.

RESULTS

In the nonembolized group, the MVI correlated with intraoperative EBL when controlling for tumor volume (r = 0.55, p = 0.002). The MVI also correlated with perioperative blood transfusion (point-biserial correlation [rpb] = 0.57, p = 0.001). A greater MVI was associated with an increased risk of blood transfusion (odds ratio [OR] 5.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–29.15) and subtotal resection (OR 7.64, 95% CI 1.74–33.58). In the embolized group, those relationships were not found. There were no significant differences in MVI, intraoperative EBL, or blood transfusion across groups.

CONCLUSIONS

This study clearly shows a relationship between MVI and intraoperative EBL in nonembolized meningiomas when controlling for tumor volume. The MVI is a potential biomarker for tumors that would benefit from embolization.

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Christina Huang Wright, James Wright, Louisa Onyewadume, Alankrita Raghavan, Isaac Lapite, Antonio Casco-Zuleta, Carlito Lagman, Martha Sajatovic and Tiffany R. Hodges

OBJECTIVE

Spinal metastases from primary intracranial glioblastoma (GBM) are infrequently reported, and the disease has yet to be well characterized. A more accurate description of its clinical presentation and patient survival may improve understanding of this pathology, guide patient care, and advocate for increased inclusion in GBM research. The authors sought to describe the clinical presentation, treatment patterns, and survival in patients with drop metastases secondary to primary intracranial GBM.

METHODS

A systematic review was performed using the PRISMA guidelines. PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were queried for abstracts that included patients with primary intracranial GBM and metastases to the spinal axis. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate characteristics of the primary brain lesion, timing of spinal metastases, clinical symptoms, anatomical location of the metastases, and survival and treatment parameters. Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank analysis of the survival curves were performed for selected subgroups.

RESULTS

Of 1225 abstracts that resulted from the search, 51 articles were selected, yielding 86 subjects. The patients’ mean age was 46.78 years and 59.74% were male. The most common symptom was lumbago or cervicalgia (90.24%), and this was followed by paraparesis (86.00%). The actuarial median survival after the detection of spinal metastases was 2.8 months and the mean survival was 2.72 months (95% CI 2.59–4.85), with a 1-year cumulative survival probability of 2.7% (95% CI 0.51%–8.33%). A diagnosis of leptomeningeal disease, present in 53.54% of the patients, was correlated, and significantly worse survival was on log-rank analysis in patients with leptomeningeal disease (p = 0.0046; median survival 2.5 months [95% CI 2–3] vs 4.0 months [95% CI 2–6]).

CONCLUSIONS

This study established baseline characteristics of GBMs metastatic to the spinal axis. The prognosis is poor, though these results will provide patients and clinicians with more accurate survival estimates. The quality of studies reporting on this disease pathology is still limited. There is significant need for improved reporting methods for spinal metastases, either through enrollment of these patients in clinical trials or through increased granularity of coding for metastatic central nervous system diseases in cancer databases.