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  • Author or Editor: Camilo E. Fadul x
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Camilo E. Fadul, Andrew L. Kominsky, Louise P. Meyer, Linda S. Kingman, William B. Kinlaw, C. Harker Rhodes, Clifford J. Eskey and Nathan E. Simmons

✓Pituitary carcinoma is a rare tumor characterized by poor responsiveness to therapy, leading to early death. Reported responses to standard chemotherapy have only been anecdotal, with no single agent or combination demonstrating consistent efficacy in the treatment of patients with this disease. The authors report rare examples of a persistent response to cytotoxic chemotherapy in two patients with pituitary carcinoma.

One patient was a 38-year-old man with visual field loss caused by a luteinizing hormone–secreting pituitary carcinoma that had recurred despite multiple surgeries and radiation therapy. Intradural metastases to the spine that had failed to respond to radiation therapy were pathologically confirmed. The second patient was a 26-year-old man with hyperprolactinemia from a prolactin-secreting pituitary tumor. Spine magnetic resonance images obtained to search for causes of neck pain showed a vertebral tumor, which was later confirmed through pathological analysis to be a metastatic pituitary carcinoma. His disease progressed despite radiation therapy, high-dose bromocriptine, and chemotherapy.

Both patients were treated monthly with temozolomide, which was administered orally on the first 5 days of a 28-day cycle. The patient in the first case underwent all 12 treatment cycles without serious side effects, and his visual field deficits improved. The patient in the second case had undergone only 10 cycles when the drug was stopped because of his severe fatigue. Nonetheless, his pain disappeared and his serum prolactin concentration decreased. Both patients continue to have partial responses and have been employed full-time for more than 1 year after discontinuing temozolomide therapy. These two examples demonstrate that temozolomide may be effective in treating pituitary carcinomas and thus should be considered in the treatment algorithm for these difficult cases.

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Matthew J. Shepard, Zhiyuan Xu, Joseph Donahue, Thomas J. Eluvathingal Muttikkal, Diogo Cordeiro, Leslie Hansen, Nasser Mohammed, Ryan D. Gentzler, James Larner, Camilo E. Fadul and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) improve survival in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Clinical trials examining the efficacy of ICIs in patients with NSCLC excluded patients with untreated brain metastases (BMs). As stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is commonly employed for NSCLC-BMs, the authors sought to define the safety and radiological and clinical outcomes for patients with NSCLC-BMs treated with concurrent ICI and SRS.

METHODS

A retrospective matched cohort study was performed on patients who had undergone SRS for one or more NSCLC-derived BMs. Two matched cohorts were identified: one that received ICI before or after SRS within a 3-month period (concurrent ICI) and one that did not (ICI naive). Locoregional tumor control, peritumoral edema, and central nervous system (CNS) adverse events were compared between the two cohorts.

RESULTS

Seventeen patients (45 BMs) and 34 patients (92 BMs) composed the concurrent-ICI and ICI-naive cohorts, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in overall survival (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.39–2.52, p = 0.99) or CNS progression-free survival (HR 2.18, 95% CI 0.72–6.62, p = 0.11) between the two groups. Similarly, the 12-month local tumor control rate was 84.9% for tumors in the concurrent-ICI cohort versus 76.3% for tumors in the ICI-naive cohort (p = 0.94). Further analysis did reveal that patients receiving concurrent ICI had increased rates of CNS complete response for BMs treated with SRS (8/16 [50%] vs 5/32 [15.6%], p = 0.012) per the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria. There was also a shorter median time to BM regression in the concurrent-ICI cohort (2.5 vs 3.1 months, p < 0.0001). There was no increased rate of radiation necrosis or intratumoral hemorrhage in the patients receiving concurrent ICI (5.9% vs 2.9% in ICI-naive cohort, p = 0.99). There was no significant difference in the rate of peritumoral edema progression between the two groups (concurrent ICI: 11.1%, ICI naive: 21.7%, p = 0.162).

CONCLUSIONS

The concurrent use of ICI and SRS to treat NSCLC-BM was well tolerated while providing more rapid BM regression. Concurrent ICI did not increase peritumoral edema or rates of radiation necrosis. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether combined ICI and SRS improves progression-free survival and overall survival for patients with metastatic NSCLC.