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Stephen T. Magill, David S. Lee, Adam J. Yen, Calixto-Hope G. Lucas, David R. Raleigh, Manish K. Aghi, Philip V. Theodosopoulos and Michael W. McDermott

OBJECTIVE

Skull base meningiomas are surgically challenging tumors due to the intricate skull base anatomy and the proximity of cranial nerves and critical cerebral vasculature. Many studies have reported outcomes after primary resection of skull base meningiomas; however, little is known about outcomes after reoperation for recurrent skull base meningiomas. Since reoperation is one treatment option for patients with recurrent meningioma, the authors sought to define the risk profile for reoperation of skull base meningiomas.

METHODS

A retrospective review of 2120 patients who underwent resection of meningiomas between 1985 and 2016 was conducted. Clinical information was extracted from the medical records, radiology data, and pathology data. All records of patients with recurrent skull base meningiomas were reviewed. Demographic data, presenting symptoms, surgical management, outcomes, and complications data were collected. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate survival after reoperation. Logistic regression was used to evaluate for risk factors associated with complications.

RESULTS

Seventy-eight patients underwent 100 reoperations for recurrent skull base meningiomas. Seventeen patients had 2 reoperations, 3 had 3 reoperations, and 2 had 4 or more reoperations. The median age at diagnosis was 52 years, and 64% of patients were female. The median follow-up was 8.5 years. Presenting symptoms included cranial neuropathy, headache, seizure, proptosis, and weakness. The median time from initial resection to first reoperation was 4.4 years and 4.1 years from first to second reoperation. Seventy-two percent of tumors were WHO grade I, 22% were WHO grade II, and 6% were WHO grade III. The sphenoid wing was the most common location (31%), followed by cerebellopontine angle (14%), cavernous sinus (13%), olfactory groove (12%), tuberculum sellae (12%), and middle fossa floor (5%). Forty-four (54%) tumors were ≥ 3 cm in maximum diameter at the time of the first reoperation. In 100 reoperations, 60 complications occurred in 30 cases. Twenty of the 60 complications required surgical intervention (33%). Complications included hydrocephalus (12), CSF leak/pseudomeningocele (11), wound infection (9), postoperative hematoma (4), venous infarction (1), and pneumocephalus (1). Postoperative neurological deficits included new or worsened cranial nerve deficits (10) and hemiparesis (3). There were no perioperative deaths in this series. On multivariate analysis, posterior fossa location was significantly associated with complications (OR 3.45, p = 0.0472). The 1-, 2-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival rates according to Kaplan-Meier analysis after the first reoperation were 94%, 92%, 88%, and 76%, respectively. The median survival after the first reoperation was 17 years.

CONCLUSIONS

Recurrent skull base meningiomas are surgically challenging tumors, and reoperation is associated with high morbidity and complication rates. Despite these cautionary data, repeat resection of recurrent skull base meningiomas in appropriately selected patients provides excellent long-term survival.

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Stephen T. Magill, Ramin A. Morshed, Calixto-Hope G. Lucas, Manish K. Aghi, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Mitchel S. Berger, Oreste de Divitiis, Domenico Solari, Paolo Cappabianca, Luigi M. Cavallo and Michael W. McDermott

OBJECTIVE

Tuberculum sellae meningiomas (TSMs) are surgically challenging tumors that can severely impair vision. Debate exists regarding whether the transcranial (TC) or endoscopic transsphenoidal (TS) approach is best for resecting these tumors, and there are few large series comparing these approaches.

METHODS

A retrospective chart review was performed at 2 academic centers comparing TC and TS approaches with respect to vision, extent of resection, recurrence, and complications. The authors report surgical outcomes and propose a simple preoperative tumor grading scale that scores tumor size (1–2), optic canal invasion (0–2), and arterial encasement (0–2). The authors performed univariate, multivariate, and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) to evaluate outcomes.

RESULTS

The TSMs were resected in 139 patients. The median follow-up was 29 months. Ninety-five (68%) cases were resected via a TC and 44 (32%) via a TS approach. Tumors treated via a TC approach had a higher tumor (p = 0.0007), artery (p < 0.0001), and total score (p = 0.0012) on the grading scale. Preoperative visual deficits were present in 87% of patients. Vision improved in 47%, stayed the same in 35%, declined in 10%, and was not recorded in 8%. The extent of resection was 65% gross-total resection, 23% near-total resection (95%–99% resection), and 12% subtotal resection (< 95%). A lower tumor score was significantly associated with better or stable vision postoperatively (p = 0.0052). The RPA confirmed low tumor score as the key predictor of postoperative visual improvement or stability. Multivariate analysis and RPA demonstrate that lower canal score (p < 0.0001) and TC approach (p = 0.0019) are associated with gross-total resection. Complications occurred in 20 (14%) patients, including CSF leak (5%) and infection (4%). There was no difference in overall complication rates between TC and TS approaches; however, the TS approach had more CSF leaks (OR 5.96, 95% CI 1.10–32.04). The observed recurrence rate was 10%, and there was no difference between the TC and TS approaches.

CONCLUSIONS

Tuberculum sellae meningiomas can be resected using either a TC or TS approach, with low morbidity and good visual outcomes in appropriately selected patients. The simple proposed grading scale provides a standard preoperative method to evaluate TSMs and can serve as a starting point for selection of the surgical approach. Higher scores were associated with worsened visual outcomes and subtotal resection, regardless of approach. The authors plan a multicenter review of this grading scale to further evaluate its utility.