Mark M. Souweidane, Caitlin E. Hoffman and Theodore H. Schwartz
Intraventricular anatomy has been detailed as it pertains to endoscopic surgery within the third ventricle, particularly for performing endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and endoscopic colloid cyst resection. The expanding role of endoscopic surgery warrants a careful appraisal of these techniques as they relate to frequent anatomical variants. Given the common occurrence of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) and cavum vergae (CV), the endoscopic surgeon should be familiar with that particular anatomy especially as it pertains to surgery within the third ventricle.
From a prospective database of endoscopic surgical cases were selected those cases in which the defined pathology necessitated surgery within the third ventricle and there was coexistent CSP and CV. Pertinent radiographic studies, operative notes, and archived video files were reviewed to define the relevant anatomy. Features of the intracavitary anatomy were assessed regarding their importance in approaching the third ventricle.
Four cases involving endoscopic surgery within the third ventricle (2 colloid cyst resections and 2 ETVs) were identified in which the surgical objective was accomplished through a septal cavum. In each case the width of the body of the lateral ventricle was reduced and the foramen of Monro was obscured. Because of the ventricular distortion, a stereotactic transcavum route was used for approaching the third ventricle. Entry into the third ventricle was accomplished through an interforniceal fenestration immediately behind the anterior commissure. The surgical goal was met in each case without any neurological change or postoperative morbidity. During the follow-up period, there has been no recurrence of a colloid cyst and no need of a secondary cerebrospinal fluid diversionary procedure.
In the presence of a CSP and CV, endoscopic navigation into the third ventricle can be problematic via a transforaminal approach. Alternatively, a transcavum interforniceal route for endoscopic surgery in the third ventricle is suggested, with the rostral lamina and the anterior commissure as important anatomical landmarks. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy and endoscopic colloid cyst resection performed via a transcavum interforniceal route in patients with a coexistent septal cavum is a feasible and safe option.
Peter F. Morgenstern, Caitlin E. Hoffman, Gary Kocharian, Ranjodh Singh, Philip E. Stieg and Mark M. Souweidane
The optimal method for detecting recurrent arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in children is unknown. An inherent preference exists for MR angiography (MRA) surveillance rather than arteriography. The validity of this strategy is uncertain.
A retrospective chart review was performed on pediatric patients treated for cerebral AVMs at a single institution from 1998 to 2012. Patients with complete obliteration of the AVM nidus after treatment and more than 12 months of follow-up were included in the analysis. Data collection focused on recurrence rates, associated risk factors, and surveillance methods.
A total of 45 patients with a mean age of 11.7 years (range 0.5–18 years) were treated for AVMs via surgical, endovascular, radiosurgical, or combined approaches. Total AVM obliteration on posttreatment digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was confirmed in 27 patients, of whom the 20 with more than 12 months of follow-up were included in subsequent analysis. The mean follow-up duration in this cohort was 5.75 years (median 5.53 years, range 1.11–10.64 years). Recurrence occurred in 3 of 20 patients (15%). Two recurrences were detected by surveillance DSA and 1 at the time of rehemorrhage. No recurrences were detected by MRA. Median time to recurrence was 33.6 months (range 19–71 months). Two patients (10%) underwent follow-up DSA, 5 (25%) had DSA and MRI/MRA, 9 (45%) had MRI/MRA only, 1 (5%) had CT angiography only, and 3 (15%) had no imaging within the first 3 years of follow-up. After 5 years posttreatment, 2 patients (10%) were followed with MRI/MRA only, 2 (10%) with DSA only, and 10 (50%) with continued DSA and MRI/MRA.
AVM recurrence in children occurred at a median of 33.6 months, when MRA was more commonly used for surveillance, but failed to detect any recurrences. A recurrence rate of 15% may be an underestimate given the reliance on surveillance MRA over angiography. A new surveillance strategy is proposed, taking into account exposure to diagnostic radiation and the potential for catastrophic rehemorrhage.
Caitlin E. Hoffman, Alejandro Santillan, Lauren Rotman, Y. Pierre Gobin and Mark M. Souweidane
The therapeutic potential for cerebral angiography (CA) in young children is expanding. However, its use in this patient population is limited by presumed higher complication rates among children. Therefore, to improve the accuracy of counseling of the parents/guardians of these patients and to identify modifiable risk factors, the authors evaluated complications after CA in young children.
The authors reviewed data for 309 consecutive cerebral angiograms obtained in 87 children younger than 36 months of age from 2004 to 2010 at a single institution. They analyzed demographics, diagnosis, angiographic findings, and complications.
The patient population comprised 40 boys and 47 girls; mean age was 14.36 months (range 1–36 months) and mean weight was 10.8 kg (range 3.7–21.0 kg). For 292 of the 309 procedures, intraarterial chemotherapy was administered; the remaining 17 procedures were for vascular malformations, stroke, tumor embolization, and intracranial hemorrhage. The rate of neurological complications was 0.0%. The rate of nonneurological complications was 2.9%: 7 cases of contrast allergy or bronchospasm, 1 groin hematoma (body weight 7 kg), and 1 transient femoral artery occlusion (body weight 10.8 kg). The rate of radiographic complications was 1.3%: 1 case of transient asymptomatic intraarterial dissection and 3 cases of asymptomatic vasospasm. Postprocedural MRI was performed for 33.3% of patients with no evidence of ischemia. There were no delayed complications. Mean follow-up time was 16.6 months. No association was found between complications and age, duration of anesthesia, number of vessels catheterized, size of the sheath, or diagnostic versus interventional procedures. Despite a trend toward a higher rate of complications for patients who weighed less than 15 kg, this finding was not significant (p = 0.35).
The rate of complications for CA in young children is comparable to rates reported for older children and lower than rates reported for adults. When appropriately indicated, CA should not be omitted from the therapeutic strategy of children younger than 36 months of age.
James M. Drake and Jay Riva-Cambrin