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Cahit Kural, Sahin Kırmızıgoz, Mehmet Can Ezgu, Orhan Bedir, Murat Kutlay and Yusuf Izci


Intracranial infections are serious and life-threatening health problems. They may present as subdural empyemas or intracerebral abscesses. Surgical drainage and subsequent antibiotic treatment is the main technique for a satisfactory clinical outcome. The aims of this study were to present a 10-year intracranial infection series and discuss the surgical characteristics in the light of literature.


Fifty-two patients with intracranial infection underwent surgical treatment between 2008 and 2018. Eleven patients were female and 41 patients were male. The mean age was 40.46 years (range 10–75 years). Eighteen patients had intracerebral abscesses, and 34 had subdural empyemas. All patients underwent surgical treatment as well as an antibiotic regimen.


No etiological agent was isolated in 29 (56%) cases. Bacterial agents were detected in 20 cases, while fungi were observed in 3 cases. Staphylococci species were the most common agents and were isolated in 8 (15%) cases. Endoscopic aspiration was performed in 3 cases, while surgical drainage and capsule resection via craniotomy was performed in 49 cases. An associated intracranial tumor was diagnosed in 2 patients with brain abscesses. Four (8%) patients died despite surgical and medical treatments.


Surgical treatment via craniotomy is an older method, but it is still the best to treat the intracranial infections not only for decompression of the brain but also to attain an accurate diagnosis. The abscess wall should always be histologically examined after surgery to rule out any intracranial tumor.

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Cahit Kural, Servet Guresci, Gulcin Guler Simsek, Erhan Arslan, Ozkan Tehli, Ilker Solmaz and Yusuf Izci


The structure of the filum terminale (FT) is important in the development of tethered cord syndrome (TCS) in children. Although many studies have been performed on the histological structure of the FT in adults, there has been no detailed investigation for those of fetuses. The aim of this study was to examine the histological structure of the FT in normal human fetuses and to compare the results with those of previous studies.


The histological examination of the FT was performed in 15 normal human fetuses; 11 of them were female and 4 were male. The gestational age of the fetuses ranged between 14 weeks and 35 weeks, and they weighed between 180 g and 1750 g. The FT of each fetus was cut and examined for adipose tissue, fibrous tissue, peripheral nerve, ganglion, ependymal cells, gliosis, elastic fibers, and collagen types (Types I and III).


Adipose tissue was observed in 2 specimens (13%), whereas fibrous tissue was found in 8 specimens. Peripheral nerve was detected in 11 (73%), ganglion in 6, ependymal cells in 5, and glial tissue in 7 FT samples. Type III collagen was present in 12 specimens (80%) with different concentrations, whereas Type I collagen and elastic fibers were not detected.


The normal structure of the FT in fetuses is different from its structure in adults. The FT has no elasticity during intrauterine life because of the lack of elastic fibers. More detailed studies are needed to understand the histological basis of TCS in children.