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Byung Chul Son, Moon Chan Kim, Dong Eon Moon, and Joon Ki Kang

✓ The authors describe the effectiveness of motor cortex stimulation (MCS) in a patient with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) Type II, formerly known as causalgia, with hemibody allodynia. During MCS, a subjective sensation of warm paresthesia developed in the painful hand and forearm and spread toward the trunk. Pain and allodynia in the areas associated with this sensation were alleviated significantly. The analgesic effect of stimulation proved to be long lasting and was still present at the 12-month follow up.

The authors speculate that MCS might exert its effect through the modulation of thalamic activity in this particular case of CRPS with hemisensory deficit. A central mechanism associated with functional disturbance in noxious-event processing in the thalamus might have an important role in the pathogenesis of the condition.

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Byung Moon Kim, Pyoung Jeon, Dong Joon Kim, Dong Ik Kim, Sang Hyun Suh, and Keun Young Park

OBJECT

Internal carotid artery (ICA) rupture during transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is an extremely difficult complication to treat. This study aimed to evaluate the immediate and long-term outcomes of covered stent placement for emergency reconstruction of ruptured ICAs during or after TSS.

METHODS

Seven patients underwent covered stent placement for emergency reconstruction of a ruptured ICA during or after TSS. The safety and effectiveness of covered stent placement for emergency reconstruction of ruptured ICAs were retrospectively analyzed.

RESULTS

Pretreatment angiography showed active bleeding in 6 patients (5 intraoperative and 1 postoperative) and a pseudoaneurysm in 1 patient. Of the 6 patients with active bleeding, 5 were treated with a successive operation to control active bleeding. The other patient was treated just after cardiopulmonary resuscitation due to massive nasal bleeding 20 days after revision of TSS. All active bleeding was controlled immediately after covered stent insertion in these 6 patients. One patient showed a gap between the covered stent and ICA wall without active bleeding 30 minutes after glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor administration due to in-stent thrombosis. The gap was occluded with coil embolization after completion of the temporarily suspended TSS. The seventh patient, whose ICA tear was treated with surgical suture, underwent covered stent placement for a pseudoaneurysm detected on postoperative Day 2. During a mean follow-up period of 46 months (range 12–85 months), all patients had excellent outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score of 0). All the stented ICAs were patent on vascular imaging follow-up at a mean of 34 months (range 12–85 months).

CONCLUSIONS

Covered stents appear to be a safe and effective option for emergency reconstruction of ruptured ICAs during or after TSS.

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Jong Won Choi, Byung Moon Kim, Dong Joon Kim, Dong Ik Kim, Sang Hyun Suh, Na-Young Shin, and Jin Goo Lee

Object

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, radiographic findings, relationship between presenting symptoms for treatment and drainage pattern, and treatment outcomes of hypoglossal canal dural arteriovenous fistula (HC-dAVF).

Methods

During a 16-year period, 238 patients underwent endovascular treatment for cranial dAVF at a single center. The incidence, radiographic findings, relationship between presenting symptoms for treatment and drainage pattern, and treatment outcomes of HC-dAVF were retrospectively evaluated.

Results

The incidence of HC-dAVF was 4.2% (n = 10). Initial symptoms were tinnitus with headache (n = 6), tinnitus only (n = 1), ocular symptoms (n = 1), otalgia (n = 1), and congestive myelopathy (n = 1). Presenting symptoms requiring treatment included ocular symptoms (n = 4), hypoglossal nerve palsy (n = 4), aggravation of myelopathy (n = 1), and aggravation of tinnitus with headache (n = 1). While the affected HC was widened in 4 of 10 patients, hypersignal intensity on source images was conspicuous in all 7 patients who underwent MR angiography (MRA). All ocular symptoms and congestive myelopathy were associated with predominant drainage to superior ophthalmic or perimedullary veins due to antegrade drainage restriction. All patients who underwent transvenous coil embolization (n = 8) or transarterial N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization (n = 1) improved without recurrence. One patient who underwent transarterial particle embolization had a recurrence 12 months posttreatment and was retreated with transvenous embolization.

Conclusions

The incidence of HC-dAVF was 4.2% of all cranial dAVF patients who underwent endovascular treatment. Source images of MRA helped to accurately diagnose HC-dAVF. More aggressive symptoms may develop as a result of a change in the predominant drainage route due to the development of venous stenosis or obstruction over time. Transvenous coil embolization appears to be the first treatment of choice.

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Joonho Chung, Moon Hang Kim, Yong Je Yoon, Kil Hwan Kim, So Ra Park, and Byung Hyune Choi

Object

This study investigated the effects of granulocyte colony–stimulating factor (G-CSF) on glial scar formation after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats and compared the therapeutic effects between G-CSF and granulocytemacrophage colony–stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to evaluate G-CSF as a potential substitute for GM-CSF in clinical application.

Methods

Rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: a sham-operated group (Group 1), an SCI group without treatment (Group 2), an SCI group treated with G-CSF (Group 3), and an SCI group treated with GM-CSF (Group 4). G-CSF and GM-CSF were administered via intraperitoneal injection immediately after SCI. The effects of G-CSF and GM-CSF on functional recovery, glial scar formation, and axonal regeneration were evaluated and compared.

Results

The rats in Groups 3 and 4 showed better functional recovery and more decreased cavity sizes than those in Group 2 (p < 0.05). Both G-CSF and GM-CSF suppressed intensive expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein around the cavity at 4 weeks and reduced the expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (p < 0.05). Also, early administration of G-CSF and GM-CSF protected axon fibers from destructive injury and facilitated axonal regeneration. There were no significant differences in comparisons of functional recovery, glial scar formation, and axonal regeneration between G-CSF and GM-CSF.

Conclusions

G-CSF suppressed glial scar formation after SCI in rats, possibly by restricting the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, which might facilitate functional recovery from SCI. GM-CSF and G-CSF had similar effects on glial scar formation and functional recovery after SCI, suggesting that G-CSF can potentially be substituted for GM-CSF in the treatment of SCI.

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Byung-Hee Lee, Byung Moon Kim, Moon Sun Park, Sung Il Park, Eun Chul Chung, Sang Hyun Suh, Chun Sik Choi, Yu Sam Won, and In Kyu Yu

Object

Ruptured blood blister–like aneurysms (BBAs) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are rare but carry a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, BBAs are very difficult to treat surgically as well as endovascularly. The authors present their experience in treating BBAs with reconstructive endovascular methods.

Methods

Nine ruptured BBAs in 9 consecutive patients (2 men and 7 women; mean age 50 years, range 42–57 years) were treated using reconstructive endovascular methods between January 2006 and November 2007. Treatment methods and angiographic and clinical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated.

Results

All 9 BBAs were initially treated with stent-assisted coil (SAC) embolization. This was followed by a second stent insertion using the stent-within-a-stent (SWS) technique in 3, covered stent placement in 3, and SAC embolization alone in 3. All 3 patients who underwent SWS placement had excellent outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale Score 5) with complete angiographic resolution of the BBAs. There were no treatment-related complications in the SWS group. Two of the 3 patients who received covered stents had excellent outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale Score 5) and complete occlusion of the BBA was achieved. The remaining patient who received a covered stent died of ICA rupture during the procedure. Aneurysm regrowth without rebleeding occurred in the 3 patients who underwent SAC embolization. Two of the 3 recurrent BBAs were treated with coil embolization with a second stent insertion, and as a result these belonged to the SWS group. The other recurrent BBA was treated with a covered stent. Of the 8 surviving patients, 5 underwent SWS, and 3 underwent covered stent placement. All surviving patients had excellent outcomes during the clinical follow-up period (mean 11 months, range 4–26 months); complete BBA resolution and smooth reconstruction of the affected ICA segment was shown on follow-up angiography.

Conclusions

In the present study, the SWS and covered-stent techniques effectively prevented rebleeding and regrowth of the BBA without sacrifice of the ICA. The SWS and covered-stent techniques can be considered an alternative treatment option for BBAs in selected patients in whom ICA sacrifice is not feasible. Stent-assisted coiling alone seems insufficient to prevent BBA regrowth.

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Jang-Hyun Baek, Byung Moon Kim, Ji Hoe Heo, Dong Joon Kim, Hyo Suk Nam, Young Dae Kim, Hyun Seok Choi, Jun-Hwee Kim, and Jin Woo Kim

OBJECTIVE

Hyperattenuation on CT scanning performed immediately after endovascular treatment (EVT) is known to be associated with the final infarct. As flat-panel CT (FPCT) scanning is readily accessible within their angiography suite, the authors evaluated the ability of the extent of hyperattenuation on FPCT to predict clinical outcomes after EVT.

METHODS

Patients with successful recanalization (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction grade 2b or 3) were reviewed retrospectively. The extent of hyperattenuation was assessed by the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score on FPCT (FPCT-ASPECTS). FPCT-ASPECTS findings were compared according to functional outcome and malignant infarction. The predictive power of the FPCT-ASPECTS with initial CT images before EVT (CT-ASPECTS) and follow-up diffusion-weighted images (MR-ASPECTS) was also compared.

RESULTS

A total of 235 patients were included. All patients were treated with mechanical thrombectomy, and 45.5% of the patients received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. The mean (± SD) time from stroke onset to recanalization was 383 ± 290 minutes. The FPCT-ASPECTS was significantly different between patients with a favorable outcome and those without (mean 9.3 ± 0.9 vs 6.7 ± 2.6) and between patients with malignant infarction and those without (3.4 ± 2.9 vs 8.8 ± 1.4). The FPCT-ASPECTS was an independent factor for a favorable outcome (adjusted OR 3.28, 95% CI 2.12–5.01) and malignant infarction (adjusted OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.31–0.57). The area under the curve (AUC) of the FPCT-ASPECTS for a favorable outcome (0.862, cutoff ≥ 8) was significantly greater than that of the CT-ASPECTS (0.637) (p < 0.001) and comparable to that of the MR-ASPECTS (0.853) (p = 0.983). For malignant infarction, the FPCT-ASPECTS was also more predictive than the CT-ASPECTS (AUC 0.906 vs 0.552; p = 0.001) with a cutoff of ≤ 5.

CONCLUSIONS

The FPCT-ASPECTS was highly predictive of clinical outcomes in patients with successful recanalization. FPCT could be a practical method to immediately predict clinical outcomes and thereby aid in acute management after EVT.

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Byung-Soo Ko, Shin Jung, Tae-Young Jung, Kyung-Sub Moon, In-Young Kim, and Sam-Suk Kang

Preoperative diagnosis of neurenteric cysts can be difficult because the imaging findings of a neurenteric cyst may be similar to those of an arachnoid cyst. The authors report a case of a neurenteric cyst with xanthomatous changes in the prepontine area. This 4-year-old girl was admitted to their institution with intermittent neck pain and vomiting. Computed tomography showed a hypodense mass in the prepontine area. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a cystic lesion measuring ~ 4 × 3 cm. The brainstem was displaced posteriorly, and the cisterns in both cerebellopontine angles were widened. The signal intensity of the cyst was similar to that of cerebrospinal fluid. Adjacent to the basilar artery there was a solid component of the mass that enhanced after administration of Gd. Intraoperatively, the authors found a cystic mass containing clear fluid with a yellowish solid nodule. On the basis of histopathological findings, the lesion was diagnosed as a neurenteric cyst with xanthomatous changes.

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Byung Moon Kim, Eun Chul Chung, Sung Il Park, Chun Sik Choi, and Yu Sam Won

✓Ruptured blood blister–like aneurysms (BBAs) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are potentially dangerous lesions because of the high risk of intraoperative bleeding associated with their wide fragile neck. The authors discuss cases in which BBAs were treated endovascularly during the chronic stage and report a case in which a ruptured BBA of the ICA was successfully treated in the acute phase with stent-assisted coil embolization and a subsequent stent-within-a-stent procedure.

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Joonho Chung, Byung Moon Kim, Ho Kyu Paik, Dong-Keun Hyun, and Hyeonseon Park

Object

The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the long-term effects of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) on blood pressure (BP).

Methods

Between January 2003 and December 2009, 134 patients underwent 145 procedures for treatment of carotid artery stenosis. Patients with at least 1 year of clinical and radiographic follow-up after treatment were included in this study. A total of 102 patients met this criterion and were placed in the CEA group (n = 59) or the CAS group (n = 43) according to their treatment. The percentage change in BP decrement and the number of patients with a normotensive BP were evaluated and compared between the groups.

Results

There were no significant differences between the groups with regard to baseline characteristics. Compared with the pretreatment BP, the follow-up BPs were significantly decreased in both groups. At the 1-year followup, the percentage change in the BP decrement was greater in the CAS group (percentage change: systolic BP 9.6% and diastolic BP 12.8%) than in the CEA group (percentage change: systolic BP 5.9% [p = 0.035] and diastolic BP = 8.1% [p = 0.049]), and there were more patients with a normotensive BP in the CAS group (46.5%) than in the CEA group (22.0%, p = 0.012).

Conclusions

Both CEA and CAS have BP-lowering effects. Carotid artery stenting seems to have a better effect than CEA on BP at the 1-year follow-up.

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Keun Young Park, Dong Ik Kim, Byung Moon Kim, Hyo Suk Nam, Young Dae Kim, Ji Hoe Heo, and Dong Joon Kim

Object

Carotid artery stenting (CAS) can be an alternative option for carotid endarterectomy in the prevention of ischemic stroke caused by carotid artery stenosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of stent design on the incidence of procedural and postprocedural embolism associated with CAS treatment.

Methods

Ninety-six symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, consisting of 79 males and 17 females, with moderate to severe carotid artery stenosis and a mean age of 69.0 years were treated with CAS. The stent type (48 closed-cell and 48 open-cell stents) was randomly allocated before the procedure. Imaging, procedural, and clinical outcomes were assessed and compared. The symptomatic subgroup (76 patients) was also analyzed to determine the influence of stent design on outcome.

Results

New lesions on postprocedural diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) were significantly more frequent in the open-cell than in the closed-cell stent group (24 vs 12, respectively; p = 0.020). The 30-day clinical outcome was not different between the 2 stent groups. In the symptomatic patient group, stent design (p = 0.017, OR 4.173) and recent smoking history (p = 0.036, OR 4.755) were strong risk factors for new lesions on postprocedural DWI.

Conclusions

Stent design may have an influence on the risk of new embolism, and selecting the appropriate stent may improve outcome.