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Byung Sup Kim, Yuil Kim, Doo-Sik Kong, Do-Hyun Nam, Jung-Il Lee, Yeon-Lim Suh, and Ho Jun Seol

OBJECTIVE

The authors conducted this retrospective study to investigate the clinical outcomes of intracranial solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) and hemangiopericytoma (HPC), defined according to the 2016 WHO classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors.

METHODS

Histopathologically proven intracranial SFT and HPC cases treated in the period from June 1996 to September 2014 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Two neuropathologists reviewed pathological slides and regraded the specimens according to the 2016 WHO classification. Factors associated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were statistically evaluated with uni- and multivariate analyses.

RESULTS

The records of 47 patients—10 with SFT, 33 with HPC, and 4 with anaplastic HPC—were reviewed. A malignant transition from conventional SFT to WHO grade III SFT/HPC was observed in 2 cases, and 13 HPC cases were assigned grade III SFT/HPC. Mean and median follow-ups were 114.6 and 94.7 months, respectively (range 7.1–366.7 months). Gross-total resection (GTR) was significantly associated with longer PFS and OS (p = 0.012 for both), and adjuvant radiation therapy versus no such therapy led to significantly longer PFS (p = 0.018). Extracranial metastases to the liver, bone, lung, spine, and kidney occurred in 10 patients (21.3%). Grade III SFT/HPC was strongly correlated with the development of extracranial metastases (p = 0.031).

CONCLUSIONS

The 2016 WHO classification of CNS tumors reflected the different types of pathological malignant progression and clinical outcomes better than prior classifications. Gross-total resection should be the primary treatment goal in patients with SFT/HPC, regardless of the pathological grade, and radiation can be administered as adjuvant therapy for patients with SFT/HPC that shows an aggressive phenotype or that is not treated with GTR.

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Ho Jun Seol, Kyu-Chang Wang, Seung-Ki Kim, Yong-Seung Hwang, Ki Joong Kim, and Byung-Kyu Cho

Object

Patients with moyamoya disease complain of headache before surgery, after surgery, or in both periods. To clarify the pathophysiological features of these headaches which are one of the major symptoms in moyamoya disease after indirect bypass surgery, the authors reviewed data obtained in patients with moyamoya disease who underwent such surgery at their institute.

Methods

The authors surveyed 204 children with moyamoya disease younger than 17 years of age who underwent indirect bypass surgery consecutively between 1988 and 2000. If headache and associated symptoms disturbed their daily activity, required rest and/or medication, and occurred at least once a month, the headache was regarded as significant and the patient was included in the study. A postoperative headache was defined as the presence of significant headache 12 months after the operation or later. Preoperative headache was documented in 44 patients. Postoperative headache was observed in 63% (28 of 44) of the patients with preoperative headache and in 6.3% (10 of 160) of those without preoperative headache. Aggravation on postoperative magnetic resonance images or single-photon emission computerized tomography scans did not correlate with this symptom (p = 0.729 and 0.203, respectively). The clinical course had the following features: 1) a coexisting stage of headache and transient ischemic attack; 2) a second stage of headache only; and 3) a final stage of improvement or disappearance of headache.

Conclusions

The authors demonstrated that headaches can persist or develop after indirect bypass surgery despite successful prevention of cerebral ischemia. In addition to decreased cerebral blood flow, progressive recruitment and redistribution of blood flow should be considered as a cause of headaches in patients with moyamoya disease.

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Jang-Hyun Baek, Byung Moon Kim, Ji Hoe Heo, Dong Joon Kim, Hyo Suk Nam, Young Dae Kim, Hyun Seok Choi, Jun-Hwee Kim, and Jin Woo Kim

OBJECTIVE

Hyperattenuation on CT scanning performed immediately after endovascular treatment (EVT) is known to be associated with the final infarct. As flat-panel CT (FPCT) scanning is readily accessible within their angiography suite, the authors evaluated the ability of the extent of hyperattenuation on FPCT to predict clinical outcomes after EVT.

METHODS

Patients with successful recanalization (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction grade 2b or 3) were reviewed retrospectively. The extent of hyperattenuation was assessed by the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score on FPCT (FPCT-ASPECTS). FPCT-ASPECTS findings were compared according to functional outcome and malignant infarction. The predictive power of the FPCT-ASPECTS with initial CT images before EVT (CT-ASPECTS) and follow-up diffusion-weighted images (MR-ASPECTS) was also compared.

RESULTS

A total of 235 patients were included. All patients were treated with mechanical thrombectomy, and 45.5% of the patients received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. The mean (± SD) time from stroke onset to recanalization was 383 ± 290 minutes. The FPCT-ASPECTS was significantly different between patients with a favorable outcome and those without (mean 9.3 ± 0.9 vs 6.7 ± 2.6) and between patients with malignant infarction and those without (3.4 ± 2.9 vs 8.8 ± 1.4). The FPCT-ASPECTS was an independent factor for a favorable outcome (adjusted OR 3.28, 95% CI 2.12–5.01) and malignant infarction (adjusted OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.31–0.57). The area under the curve (AUC) of the FPCT-ASPECTS for a favorable outcome (0.862, cutoff ≥ 8) was significantly greater than that of the CT-ASPECTS (0.637) (p < 0.001) and comparable to that of the MR-ASPECTS (0.853) (p = 0.983). For malignant infarction, the FPCT-ASPECTS was also more predictive than the CT-ASPECTS (AUC 0.906 vs 0.552; p = 0.001) with a cutoff of ≤ 5.

CONCLUSIONS

The FPCT-ASPECTS was highly predictive of clinical outcomes in patients with successful recanalization. FPCT could be a practical method to immediately predict clinical outcomes and thereby aid in acute management after EVT.

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Jeong Yoon Park, Yong Eun Cho, Sung Uk Kuh, Jun Hyung Cho, Dong Kyu Chin, Byung Ho Jin, and Keun Su Kim

Object.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between adjacent-segment degeneration (ASD) and pelvic parameters in the patients with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. Sagittal balance is the most important risk and prognostic factor in the development of ASD. The pelvic incidence angle (PIA) is an important anatomical parameter in determining the sagittal curvature of the spine and in the individual variability of the sacral slope and the lordotic curve. Thus, the authors evaluated the relationship between the pelvic parameters and the ASD.

Methods.

Among 132 patients with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis who underwent surgery at their institution, the authors selected patients in whom a one-stage, single-level, 360° fixation procedure was performed for Grade I spondylolisthesis and who underwent follow-up for more than 1 year. Parameters in 34 patients satisfied these conditions. Of the 34 patients, seven had ASD (Group 1) and 27 patients did not have ASD (Group 2). The investigators measured degree of spondylolisthesis, lordotic angle, sacral slope angle (SSA), pelvic tilt angle (PTA), PIA, and additional parameters pre-and postoperatively. The radiographic data were reviewed retrospectively.

Results.

The population consisted of nine men and 25 women whose mean age was 48.9 ± 9 years (± standard deviation) (range 28–65 years). Seven patients developed ASD after undergoing fusion. Of all the parameters, pre-and postoperative degree of spondylolisthesis, segmental lordosis, lordotic angle, SSA, preoperative PTA, and pre-operative PIA did not differ significantly between the two groups; only postoperative PTA and PIA were significantly different.

Conclusions.

The development of ASD is closely related to postoperative PIA and PTA, not preoperative PIA and PTA. The measurement of postoperative PIA can be used as a new indirect method to predict the ASD.

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Sungmi Jeon, Jee Hyeok Chung, Sukwha Kim, Seung-Ki Kim, Ji Hoon Phi, Ji Yeoun Lee, Kyung Hyun Kim, Kyu-Chang Wang, and Byung Jun Kim

OBJECTIVE

Posterior distraction osteogenesis (DO) is widely accepted for the treatment of craniosynostosis. The aim of this study was to quantitatively compare the effect of DO on the cranial vault according to the age of the patient and direction of distraction.

METHODS

This was a retrospective study of patients with craniosynostosis who underwent DO in the anteroposterior direction. Postdistraction changes in intracranial volume (ICV), anteroposterior distance, biparietal distance, cranial height, and frontal bossing angle were measured using Mimics software on CT scans. Craniometric data were analyzed using a multivariate regression model.

RESULTS

Thirty-two patients (16 anterior and 16 posterior DOs) were included in the study. The mean ICV increase in the anterior and posterior DO group was 211 cm3 (range 142–281 cm3) and 214 cm3 (range 150–279 cm3), respectively. Patients who were aged 1 year or younger showed a greater percentage increase in ICV than patients older than 1 year. In the anterior DO group, a more balanced increase in both anterior and posterior anteroposterior distance was observed in patients aged 1 year or younger when compared to patients older than 1 year. In the posterior DO group, a bigger expansion and smoother contour in the posterior cranial fossa was observed in patients aged 1 year or younger.

CONCLUSIONS

Both anterior and posterior DO are effective surgical options for expanding the cranial vault in patients with craniosynostosis. Early distraction appeared to show greater morphological changes in the growing cranial vault than those predicted with the vector of distraction.

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Yang Kwon, Jun Seok Bae, Jae Myung Kim, Do Hee Lee, Soon Young Kim, Jae Sung Ahn, Jeong Hoon Kim, Chang Jin Kim, Byung Duk Kwun, and Jung Kyo Lee

✓ Tumors involving the optic nerve (optic glioma, optic nerve sheath meningioma) are benign but difficult to treat. Gamma knife surgery (GKS) may be a useful treatment. The authors present data obtained in three such cases and record the effects of GKS.

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Dong-Hun Kang, Byung Moon Kim, Ji Hoe Heo, Hyo Suk Nam, Young Dae Kim, Yang-Ha Hwang, Yong-Won Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Dong Joon Kim, Hyo Sung Kwak, Hong Gee Roh, Young-Jun Lee, and Sang Heum Kim

OBJECTIVE

The role of the balloon guide catheter (BGC) has not been evaluated in contact aspiration thrombectomy (CAT) for acute stroke. Here, the authors aimed to test whether the BGC was associated with recanalization success and good functional outcome in CAT.

METHODS

All patients who had undergone CAT as the first-line treatment for anterior circulation intracranial large vessel occlusion were retrospectively identified from prospectively maintained registries for six stroke centers. The patients were dichotomized into BGC utilization and nonutilization groups. Clinical findings, procedural details, and recanalization success rates were compared between the two groups. Whether the BGC was associated with recanalization success and functional outcome was assessed.

RESULTS

A total of 429 patients (mean age 68.4 ± 11.4 years; M/F ratio 215:214) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A BGC was used in 45.2% of patients. The overall recanalization and good outcome rates were 80.2% and 52.0%, respectively. Compared to the non-BGC group, the BGC group had a significantly reduced number of CAT passes (2.6 ± 1.6 vs 3.4 ± 1.5), shorter puncture-to-recanalization time (56 ± 27 vs 64 ± 35 minutes), lower need for the additional use of thrombolytics (1.0% vs 8.1%), and less embolization to a distal or different site (0.5% vs 3.4%). The BGC group showed significantly higher final (89.2% vs 72.8%) and first-pass (24.2% vs 8.1%) recanalization success rates. After adjustment for potentially associated factors, BGC utilization remained independently associated with recanalization (OR 4.171, 95% CI 1.523–11.420) and good functional outcome (OR 2.103, 95% CI 1.225–3.612).

CONCLUSIONS

BGC utilization significantly increased the final and first-pass recanalization rates and remained independently associated with recanalization success and good functional outcome.

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Jun Hyong Ahn, Ji Hoon Phi, Hyun-Seung Kang, Kyu-Chang Wang, Byung-Kyu Cho, Ji Yeoun Lee, Gi Beom Kim, and Seung-Ki Kim

This 13-month-old boy, in whom Kawasaki disease had been diagnosed at the age of 6 months, presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by the rupture of a middle cerebral artery aneurysm. The authors performed an emergency craniectomy and clip occlusion of the aneurysm, which was found to be partially thrombosed. The patient was discharged 4 weeks postoperatively without apparent neurological deficit.

Intracranial saccular aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare, and are occasionally associated with various systemic disorders. Kawasaki disease is a systemic vasculopathy of unknown origin, but cerebral arteries are usually spared from the disease process. This is the second case report of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm in a patient with Kawasaki disease, providing a novel clinical feature that the authors call Kawasaki syndrome.

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Ho Jun Seol, Duk Chul Shin, Yoo Seok Kim, Eun Bo Shim, Seung-Ki Kim, Byung-Kyu Cho, and Kyu-Chang Wang

Object

Bilateral intimal thickening of the distal internal carotid arteries (ICAs) and the development of many collateral vessels in the base of the brain characterize moyamoya disease (MMD). Although the etiology of and the reason why MMD is limited to the major intracranial vessels remain unclear, flow dynamics, such as shear stress, may be related to its smooth-muscle cell migration. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the local hemodynamic factor, which concerns the predominance of specific anatomical sites, such as the distal ICA in the early stage and the proximal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) in the advanced stage of MMD.

Methods

The authors simulated the hemodynamics in the circle of Willis using computational models of 2D geometries of the distal ICA and PCA. A finite-element commercial package, automatic dynamics incremental nonlinear analysis (ADINA), was used to simulate blood flow in these arteries.

Results

Numerical results demonstrated that shear stress was relatively low at the ICA region. The distribution of shear stress was related to the predisposing area of MMD.

Conclusions

Diminished shear stress may promote stenosis of the distal ICA, which is a major pathological region in MMD.

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Sang Hyun Suh, Byung Moon Kim, Sung Il Park, Dong Ik Kim, Yong Sam Shin, Eui Jong Kim, Eun Chul Chung, Jun Seok Koh, Hyun Cheol Shin, Chun Sik Choi, and Yu Sam Won

Object

A ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebrobasilar artery (VBA-DA) is a well-known cause of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with a high rate of early rebleeding. Internal trapping of the parent artery, including the dissected segment, is one of the most reliable techniques to prevent rebleeding. However, for a ruptured VBA-DA not suitable for internal trapping, the optimal treatment method has not been well established. The authors describe their experience in treating ruptured VBA-DAs not amenable to internal trapping of the parent artery with stent-assisted coil embolization (SAC) followed by a stent-within-a-stent (SWS) technique.

Methods

Eleven patients—6 men and 5 women with a mean age of 48 years and each with a ruptured VBA-DA not amenable to internal trapping of the parent artery—underwent an SAC-SWS between November 2005 and October 2007. The feasibility and clinical and angiographic outcomes of this combined procedure were retrospectively evaluated.

Results

The SAC-SWS was successful without any treatment-related complications in all 11 patients. Immediate posttreatment angiograms revealed complete obliteration of the DA sac in 3 patients, near-complete obliteration in 7, and partial obliteration in 1. One patient died as a direct consequence of the initial SAH. All 10 surviving patients had excellent clinical outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale Score 5) without posttreatment rebleeding during a follow-up period of 8–24 months (mean follow-up 15 months). Angiographic follow-up at 6–12 months after treatment was possible at least once in all surviving patients. Nine VBA-DAs showed complete obliteration; the other aneurysm, which had appeared partially obliterated immediately after treatment, demonstrated progressive obliteration on 2 consecutive follow-up angiography studies. There was no in-stent stenosis or occlusion of the branch or perforating vessels.

Conclusions

The SAC-SWS technique seems to be a feasible and effective reconstructive treatment option for a ruptured VBA-DA. The technique may be considered as an alternative therapeutic option in selected patients with ruptured VBA-DAs unsuitable for internal trapping of the parent artery.