Sun-Chul Hwang, Soo-Bin Im, Bum-Tae Kim and Won-Han Shin
Twist-drill craniostomy (TDC) with closed-system drainage is an effective treatment option for chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). Because the entry point for TDC has not been described in a definitive area, the aim of this study was to define the optimal twist-drill entry point for CSDH.
The authors selected 40 random cases involving selective catheter angiography of the external carotid artery, regardless of study purpose, to evaluate the course of the middle meningeal artery. Furthermore, 50 skull radiographs were reviewed to assess the relation of the vascular groove to the coronal suture. On the basis of the radiological anatomical study, the authors propose that the normal TDC entry point should be 1 cm anterior to the coronal suture at the level of the superior temporal line (STL). Thirty patients with symptomatic CSDH were treated using TDC with closed-system drainage at the proposed entry point. The thicknesses of the hematoma and the skull were measured at the proposed entry point. The congruence between the proposed entry point and postoperative craniostomy was estimated and complications were evaluated.
In the radiological study, all the branches of the middle meningeal artery ran posterior to the coronal suture and the vascular grooves were also located posterior to the coronal suture at the level of the STL. The average distance of the vascular grooves was 8.0 ±5.8 mm. Thirty-five procedures were performed. The coronal suture and the STL could be identified clearly on brain CT scans. The mean thickness of the skull and the CSDH at the proposed point was 8 mm (range 5–13 mm) and 20 mm (range 10–28 mm), respectively. All the TDCs except 1 were congruent with the preoperative brain CT scans. One CSDH recurred 1 month after the first operation and was revised using the same procedure. No other complications occurred.
One centimeter anterior to the coronal suture at the level of the STL is suitable as the normal entry point of the TDC for symptomatic CSDH. The thickness of the CSDH can be measured at this point on a preoperative brain CT scan. Furthermore, the entry point on the scalp can be accurately estimated using surface landmarks.
Bum-Joon Kim, Junseok W. Hur, Jong Soo Park, Joo Han Kim, Taek-Hyun Kwon, Youn-Kwan Park and Hong Joo Moon
An in vitro study was performed to understand the potential roles of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in the elastin degradation of human ligamentum flavum (LF) cells via treatment with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Previous studies have identified a decreased elastin to collagen ratio in hypertrophic LF. Among the extracellular matrix remodeling endopeptidases, MMP-2 and MMP-9 are known to have elastolytic activity. The hypothesis that activated LF cells exposed to inflammation would secrete MMP-2 and MMP-9, thereby resulting in elastin degradation, was examined.
To examine MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in human LF, cells were isolated and cultured from LF tissues that were obtained during lumbar disc surgery. Isolated LF cells were equally divided into 3 flasks and subcultured. Upon cellular confluency, the LF cells were treated with TNFα, IL-1β, or none (as a control) and incubated for 48 hours. The conditioned media were collected and assayed for MMP-2 and MMP-9 using gelatin zymography and Western blot analysis. The electrophoresis bands were compared on densitometric scans using ImageJ software.
The conditioned media from the isolated human LF cells naturally expressed 72-kD and 92-kD gelatinolytic activities on gelatin zymography. The IL-1β-treated LF cells presented sustained increases in the proenzyme/zymogen forms of MMP−2 and −9 (proMMP-2 and proMMP-9), and activeMMP-9 expression (p = 0.001, 0.022, and 0.036, respectively); the TNFα-treated LF cells showed the most elevated proMMP9 secretion (p = 0.006), as determined by Western blot analyses. ActiveMMP-2 expression was not observed on zymography or the Western blot analysis.
TNFα and IL-1β promote proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 secretion. IL-1β appears to activate proMMP-9 in human LF cells. Based on these findings, selective MMP-9 blockers or antiinflammatory drugs could be potential treatment options for LF hypertrophy.
Joonho Chung, Yong Cheol Lim, Sang Hyun Suh, Yu Shik Shim, Yong Bae Kim, Jin-Yang Joo, Bum-soo Kim and Yong Sam Shin
The purpose of this study was to report the authors' experiences in stent-assisted coil embolization (SAC) of ruptured wide-necked aneurysms in the acute period and to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for periprocedural complications.
A total of 72 patients were recruited for this study between March 2007 and June 2012. All patients met the following criteria: 1) the presence of ruptured intracranial wide-necked saccular aneurysms, and 2) the patient underwent SAC for treatment of those aneurysms within 72 hours of rupture. All of the patients with clinically poor grades or acute hydrocephalus underwent external ventricular drainage (EVD) before SAC. The incidence of and risk factors for periprocedural complications were retrospectively evaluated.
Of the 72 patients included in this study, periprocedural complications occurred in 14 (19.4%), including asymptomatic complications in 4 (5.6%) and symptomatic complications in 10 (13.9%); there were symptomatic thromboembolic complications in 5 patients (6.9%), and symptomatic hemorrhagic complications in 5 (6.9%). The authors observed no subacute or delayed thromboembolic complications during the follow-up period of 18.8 months. Use of EVD (OR 1.413, 95% CI 0.088–2.173; p = 0.046) was the only independent risk factor for periprocedural complications on multivariate logistic regression analysis.
The periprocedural complication rate during SAC was 19.4% among 72 patients. Because of the high complication rate, microsurgical clipping or endovascular treatment with another technique (multiple-microcatheter or balloon-assisted technique) may be a more appropriate option for first-line treatment than SAC, especially in patients requiring EVD.