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Adam M. Lukasiewicz, Ryan A. Grant, Bryce A. Basques, Matthew L. Webb, Andre M. Samuel and Jonathan N. Grauer


Surgery for subdural hematoma (SDH) is a commonly performed neurosurgical procedure. This study identifies patient characteristics associated with adverse outcomes and prolonged length of stay (LOS) in patients who underwent surgical treatment for SDH.


All patients in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) who were treated via craniotomy or craniectomy for SDH between 2005 and 2012 were identified. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and 30-day outcomes were described. Multivariate regression was used to identify predictors of adverse events.


A total of 746 surgical procedures performed for SDH were identified and analyzed. Patients undergoing this procedure were 64% male with an average age (± SD) of 70.9 ± 14.1 years. The most common individual adverse events were death (17%) and intubation for more than 48 hours (19%). In total, 34% experienced a serious adverse event other than death, 8% of patients returned to the operating room (OR), and the average hospital LOS was 9.8 ± 9.9 days. In multivariate analysis, reduced mortality was associated with age less than 60 years (relative risk [RR] = 0.47, p = 0.017). Increased mortality was associated with gangrene (RR = 3.5, p = 0.044), ascites (RR = 3.00, p = 0.006), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Class 4 or higher (RR = 2.34, p = 0.002), coma (RR = 2.25, p < 0.001), and bleeding disorders (RR = 1.87, p = 0.003). Return to the OR was associated with pneumonia (RR = 3.86, p = 0.044), male sex (RR = 1.85, p = 0.015), and delirium (RR = 1.75, p = 0.016). Serious adverse events were associated with ventilator dependence preoperatively (RR = 1.86, p < 0.001), dialysis (RR = 1.44, p = 0.028), delirium (RR = 1.40, p = 0.005), ASA Class 4 or higher (RR = 1.36, p = 0.035), and male sex (RR = 1.29, p = 0.037). Similarly, LOS was increased in ventilator dependent patients by 1.56-fold (p = 0.002), in patients with ASA Class 4 or higher by 1.30-fold (p = 0.006), and in delirious patients by 1.29-fold (p = 0.008).


Adverse outcomes are common after surgery for SDH. In this study, 18% of the patients died within 30 days of surgery. Factors associated with adverse outcomes were identified. Patients and families should be counseled about the serious risks of morbidity and death associated with acute traumatic SDH requiring surgery.

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Benjamin C. Mayo, Dustin H. Massel, Daniel D. Bohl, Ankur S. Narain, Fady Y. Hijji, William W. Long, Krishna D. Modi, Bryce A. Basques, Alem Yacob and Kern Singh


Prior studies have correlated preoperative depression and poor mental health status with inferior patient-reported outcomes following lumbar spinal procedures. However, literature regarding the effect of mental health on outcomes following cervical spinal surgery is limited. As such, the purpose of this study is to test for the association of preoperative SF-12 Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores with improvements in Neck Disability Index (NDI), SF-12 Physical Component Summary (PCS), and neck and arm pain following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF).


A prospectively maintained surgical database of patients who underwent a primary 1- or 2-level ACDF during 2014–2015 was reviewed. Patients were excluded if they did not have complete patient-reported outcome data for the preoperative or 6-week, 12-week, or 6-month postoperative visits. At baseline, preoperative SF-12 MCS score was assessed for association with preoperative NDI, neck visual analog scale (VAS) score, arm VAS score, and SF-12 PCS score. The preoperative MCS score was then tested for association with changes in NDI, neck VAS, arm VAS, and SF-12 PCS scores from the preoperative visit to postoperative visits. These tests were conducted using multivariate regression controlling for baseline characteristics as well as for the preoperative score for the patient-reported outcome being assessed.


A total of 52 patients were included in the analysis. At baseline, a higher preoperative MCS score was negatively associated with a lower preoperative NDI (coefficient: −0.74, p < 0.001) and preoperative arm VAS score (−0.06, p = 0.026), but not preoperative neck VAS score (−0.03, p = 0.325) or SF-12 PCS score (0.04, p = 0.664). Additionally, there was no association between preoperative MCS score and improvement in NDI, neck VAS, arm VAS, or SF-12 PCS score at any of the postoperative time points (6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months, p > 0.05 for each). The percentage of patients achieving a minimum clinically important difference at 6 months did not differ between the bottom and top MCS score halves (p > 0.05 for each).


The results of this study suggest that better preoperative mental health status is associated with lower perceived preoperative disability but is not associated with severity of preoperative neck or arm pain. In contrast to other studies, the present study was unable to demonstrate that preoperative mental health is predictive of improvement in patient-reported outcomes at any postoperative time point following an ACDF.