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Brian E. Snell, Adekunle Adesina and Christopher E. Wolfla

✓ The authors present the case of a 10-year-old girl with a history of cervical trauma in whom a cystic lesion was found to involve all three columns of C-7 with evidence of pathological fracture. Computerized tomography scanning revealed a lytic lesion with sclerotic margins involving the left vertebral body, pedicle, lateral mass, and lamina of C-7 with an associated pathological compression fracture. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated mixed signal on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences, with cystic and enhancing solid portions. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated anterior displacement of the left vertebral artery at C-7. The patient underwent C-7 subtotal corpectomy and posterior resection of the tumor mass; anterior and posterior fusion were performed in which instrumentation was placed. Histological examination disclosed cystic areas lined by fibromembranous tissue with calcification and osteoid deposits consistent with unicameral bone cyst. Of the four previously reported cases of unicameral bone cysts in the cervical spine, none involved all three columns simultaneously or was associated with pathological fracture. The most common differential diagnostic considerations for cystic lesions in the spine are aneurysmal bone cyst, osteoblastoma, or giant cell tumor of bone. Unicameral bone cyst, in this location, although rare, must be considered in the differential diagnosis and may require resection and spinal reconstruction.

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Joaquin E. Jimenez, Zachary C. Gersey, Jason Wagner, Brian Snelling, Sudheer Ambekar and Eric C. Peterson

OBJECTIVE

Pediatric patients are at risk for the recurrence of brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) after resection. While there is general consensus on the importance of follow-up after surgical removal of an AVM, there is a lack of consistency in the duration of that follow-up. The object of this systematic review was to examine the role of follow-up imaging in detecting AVM recurrence early and preventing AVM rupture.

METHODS

This systematic review was performed using articles obtained through a search of the literature contained in the MeSH database, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.

RESULTS

Search results revealed 1052 articles, 13 of which described 31 cases of AVM recurrence meeting the criteria for inclusion in this study. Detection of AVM occurred significantly earlier (mean ± SD, 3.56 ± 3.67 years) in patients with follow-up imaging than in those without (mean 8.86 ± 5.61 years; p = 0.0169). While 13.34% of patients who underwent follow-up imaging presented with rupture of a recurrent AVM, 57.14% of those without follow-up imaging presented with a ruptured recurrence (p = 0.0377).

CONCLUSIONS

Follow-up imaging has an integral role after AVM resection and is sometimes not performed for a sufficient period, leading to delayed detection of recurrence and an increased likelihood of a ruptured recurrent AVM.

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Samir Sur, Brian Snelling, Priyank Khandelwal, Justin M. Caplan, Eric C. Peterson, Robert M. Starke and Dileep R. Yavagal

OBJECTIVE

The goals of this study were to describe the authors' recent institutional experience with the transradial approach to anterior circulation large-vessel occlusions (LVOs) in acute ischemic stroke patients and to report its technical feasibility.

METHODS

The authors reviewed their institutional database to identify patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy via a transradial approach over the 2 previous years, encompassing their experience using modern techniques including stent retrievers.

RESULTS

Eleven patients were identified. In 8 (72%) of these patients the right radial artery was chosen as the primary access site. In the remaining patients, transfemoral access was initially attempted. Revascularization (modified Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia [mTICI] score ≥ 2b) was achieved in 10 (91%) of 11 cases. The average time to first pass with the stent retriever was 64 minutes. No access-related complications occurred.

CONCLUSIONS

Transradial access for mechanical thrombectomy in anterior circulation LVOs is safe and feasible. Further comparative studies are needed to determine criteria for selecting the transradial approach in this setting.

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Kunakorn Atchaneeyasakul, Anita Tipirneni, Tony Zhang, Priyank Khandelwal, Sudheer Ambekar, Brian Snelling, Sushrut Dharmadhikari, Chuanhui Dong, Luis Guada, Kevin Ramdas, Seemant Chaturvedi, Tatjana Rundek and Dileep R. Yavagal

OBJECTIVE

Thyroid disorder has been known to affect vascular function and has been associated with aortic aneurysm formation in some cases; however, the connection has not been well studied. The authors hypothesized that hypothyroidism is associated with the formation of cerebral aneurysms.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective case-control study of consecutive patients who had undergone cerebral angiography at an academic, tertiary care medical center in the period from April 2004 through April 2014. Patients with unruptured aneurysms were identified from among those who had undergone 3-vessel catheter angiography. Age-matched controls without cerebral aneurysms on angiography were also identified from the same database. Patients with previous subarachnoid hemorrhage or intracranial hemorrhage were excluded. History of hypothyroidism and other risk factors were recorded.

RESULTS

Two hundred forty-three patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms were identified and age matched with 243 controls. Mean aneurysm size was 9.6 ± 0.8 mm. Hypothyroidism was present in 40 patients (16.5%) and 9 matched controls (3.7%; adjusted OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.3–7.8, p = 0.01). Subgroup analysis showed that men with hypothyroidism had higher odds of an unruptured cerebral aneurysm diagnosis than the women with hypothyroidism, with an adjusted OR of 12.7 (95% CI 1.3–121.9) versus an OR of 2.5 (95% CI 1.0–6.4) on multivariate analysis.

CONCLUSIONS

Hypothyroidism appears to be independently associated with unruptured cerebral aneurysms, with a higher effect seen in men. Given the known pathophysiological associations between hypothyroidism and vascular dysfunction, this finding warrants further exploration.

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John W. Thompson, Omar Elwardany, David J. McCarthy, Dallas L. Sheinberg, Carlos M. Alvarez, Ahmed Nada, Brian M. Snelling, Stephanie H. Chen, Samir Sur and Robert M. Starke

Cerebral aneurysm rupture is a devastating event resulting in subarachnoid hemorrhage and is associated with significant morbidity and death. Up to 50% of individuals do not survive aneurysm rupture, with the majority of survivors suffering some degree of neurological deficit. Therefore, prior to aneurysm rupture, a large number of diagnosed patients are treated either microsurgically via clipping or endovascularly to prevent aneurysm filling. With the advancement of endovascular surgical techniques and devices, endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms is becoming the first-line therapy at many hospitals. Despite this fact, a large number of endovascularly treated patients will have aneurysm recanalization and progression and will require retreatment. The lack of approved pharmacological interventions for cerebral aneurysms and the need for retreatment have led to a growing interest in understanding the molecular, cellular, and physiological determinants of cerebral aneurysm pathogenesis, maturation, and rupture. To this end, the use of animal cerebral aneurysm models has contributed significantly to our current understanding of cerebral aneurysm biology and to the development of and training in endovascular devices. This review summarizes the small and large animal models of cerebral aneurysm that are being used to explore the pathophysiology of cerebral aneurysms, as well as the development of novel endovascular devices for aneurysm treatment.