Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 12 items for

  • Author or Editor: Brian J. Neuman x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Taylor E. Purvis, Brian J. Neuman, Lee H. Riley III and Richard L. Skolasky

OBJECTIVE

In this paper, the authors demonstrate to spine surgeons the prevalence and severity of anxiety and depression among patients presenting for surgery and explore the relationships between different legacy and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) screening measures.

METHODS

A total of 512 adult spine surgery patients at a single institution completed the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire (GAD-7), 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) depression scale, and PROMIS Anxiety and Depression computer-adaptive tests (CATs) preoperatively. Correlation coefficients were calculated between PROMIS scores and GAD-7 and PHQ-8 scores. Published reference tables were used to determine the presence of anxiety or depression using GAD-7 and PHQ-8. Sensitivity and specificity of published guidance on the PROMIS Anxiety and Depression CATs were compared. Guidance from 3 sources was compared: published GAD-7 and PHQ-8 crosswalk tables, American Psychiatric Association scales, and expert clinical consensus. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine data-driven cut-points for PROMIS Anxiety and Depression. Significance was accepted as p < 0.05.

RESULTS

In 512 spine surgery patients, anxiety and depression were prevalent preoperatively (5% with any anxiety, 24% with generalized anxiety screen-positive; and 54% with any depression, 24% with probable major depression). Correlations were moderately strong between PROMIS Anxiety and GAD-7 scores (r = 0.72; p < 0.001) and between PROMIS Depression and PHQ-8 scores (r = 0.74; p < 0.001). The observed correlation of the PROMIS Depression score was greater with the PHQ-8 cognitive/affective score (r = 0.766) than with the somatic score (r = 0.601) (p < 0.001). PROMIS Anxiety and Depression CATs were able to detect the presence of generalized anxiety screen-positive (sensitivity, 86.0%; specificity, 81.6%) and of probable major depression (sensitivity, 82.3%; specificity, 81.4%). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated data-driven cut-points for these groups.

CONCLUSIONS

PROMIS Anxiety and Depression CATs are reliable tools for identifying generalized anxiety screen-positive spine surgery patients and those with probable major depression.

Restricted access

Mark Ren, Barry R. Bryant, Andrew B. Harris, Khaled M. Kebaish, Lee H. Riley III, David B. Cohen, Richard L. Skolasky and Brian J. Neuman

OBJECTIVE

The objectives of the study were to determine, among patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD), the following: 1) how preoperative opioid use, dose, and duration of use are associated with long-term opioid use and dose; 2) how preoperative opioid use is associated with rates of postoperative use from 6 weeks to 2 years; and 3) how postoperative opioid use at 6 months and 1 year is associated with use at 2 years.

METHODS

Using a single-center, longitudinally maintained registry, the authors identified 87 patients who underwent ASD surgery from 2013 to 2017. Fifty-nine patients reported preoperative opioid use (37 high-dose [≥ 90 morphine milligram equivalents daily] and 22 low-dose use). The duration of preoperative use was long-term (≥ 6 months) for 44 patients and short-term for 15. The authors evaluated postoperative opioid use at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine associations of preoperative opioid use, dose, and duration with use at each time point (alpha = 0.05).

RESULTS

The following preoperative factors were associated with opioid use 2 years postoperatively: any opioid use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 14, 95% CI 2.5–82), high-dose use (aOR 7.3, 95% CI 1.1–48), and long-term use (aOR 17, 95% CI 2.2–123). All patients who reported high-dose opioid use at the 2-year follow-up examination had also reported preoperative opioid use. Preoperative high-dose use (aOR 247, 95% CI 5.8–10,546) but not long-term use (aOR 4.0, 95% CI 0.18–91) was associated with high-dose use at the 2-year follow-up visit. Compared with patients who reported no preoperative use, those who reported preoperative opioid use had higher rates of use at each postoperative time point (from 94% vs 62% at 6 weeks to 54% vs 7.1% at 2 years) (all p < 0.001). Opioid use at 2 years was independently associated with use at 1 year (aOR 33, 95% CI 6.8–261) but not at 6 months (aOR 4.3, 95% CI 0.95–24).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients’ preoperative opioid use, dose, and duration of use are associated with long-term use after ASD surgery, and a high preoperative dose is also associated with high-dose opioid use at the 2-year follow-up visit. Patients using opioids 1 year after ASD surgery may be at risk for long-term use.

Restricted access

Micheal Raad, Andrew B. Harris, Varun Puvanesarajah, Mostafa H. El Dafrawy, Floreana N. Kebaish, Brian J. Neuman, Richard L. Skolasky, David B. Cohen and Khaled M. Kebaish

OBJECTIVE

Patients’ expectations for pain relief are associated with patient-reported outcomes after treatment, although this has not been examined in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD). The aim of this study was to identify associations between patients’ preoperative expectations for pain relief after ASD surgery and patient-reported pain at the 2-year follow-up.

METHODS

The authors analyzed surgically treated ASD patients at a single institution who completed a survey question about expectations for back pain relief. Five ordinal answer choices to “I expect my back pain to improve” were used to categorize patients as having low or high expectations. Back pain was measured using the 10-point numeric rating scale (NRS) and Scoliosis Research Society–22r (SRS-22r) patient survey. Preoperative and postoperative pain were compared using analysis of covariance.

RESULTS

Of 140 ASD patients eligible for 2-year follow-up, 105 patients (77 women) had pre- and postoperative data on patient expectations, 85 of whom had high expectations. The mean patient age was 59 ± 12 years, and 46 patients (44%) had undergone previous spine surgery. The high-expectations and low-expectations groups had similar baseline demographic and clinical characteristics (p > 0.05), except for lower SRS-22r mental health scores in those with low expectations. After controlling for baseline characteristics and mental health, the mean postoperative NRS score was significantly better (lower) in the high-expectations group (3.5 ± 3.5) than in the low-expectations group (5.4 ± 3.7) (p = 0.049). The mean postoperative SRS-22r pain score was significantly better (higher) in the high-expectations group (3.3 ± 1.1) than in the low-expectations group (2.6 ± 0.94) (p = 0.019).

CONCLUSIONS

Despite similar baseline characteristics, patients with high preoperative expectations for back pain relief reported less pain 2 years after ASD surgery than patients with low preoperative expectations.

Full access

Micheal Raad, Callum J. Donaldson, Mostafa H. El Dafrawy, Daniel M. Sciubba, Lee H. Riley III, Brian J. Neuman, Khaled M. Kebaish and Richard L. Skolasky

OBJECTIVE

Recommendations for the surgical treatment of isolated lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) (i.e., in the absence of concomitant scoliosis or spondylolisthesis) are unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate trends in the surgical treatment of isolated LSS in US adults and determine implications for outcomes.

METHODS

The authors analyzed inpatient and outpatient claims from the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database for 20,279 patients aged 40–64 years who underwent surgery for LSS between 2010 and 2014. Only patients with continuous 12-month insurance coverage after surgery were included. The rates of decompression with arthrodesis versus decompression only and of simple (1- or 2-level, single-approach) versus complex (> 2-level or combined-approach) arthrodesis were analyzed by year and geographic region. These trends were further analyzed with respect to complications, length of hospital stay, payments made to the hospital, and patient discharge status. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

RESULTS

The proportion of patients who underwent decompression with arthrodesis compared with decompression only increased significantly and linearly from 2010 to 2014 (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.06–1.10). Arthrodesis was more likely to be complex rather than simple with each subsequent year (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.33–1.49). This trend was accompanied by an increased likelihood of postoperative complications (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02–1.21), higher costs (payments increased by a mean of US$1633 per year; 95% CI 1327–1939), and greater likelihood of being discharged to a skilled nursing facility as opposed to home (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.03–1.20). The South and Midwest regions of the US had the highest proportions of patients undergoing arthrodesis (48% and 42%, respectively). The mean length of hospital stay did not change significantly (p = 0.324).

CONCLUSIONS

From 2010 to 2014, the proportion of adults undergoing decompression with arthrodesis versus decompression only for the treatment of LSS increased, especially in the South and Midwest regions of the US. A greater proportion of these fusions were complex and were associated with more complications, higher costs, and a greater likelihood of being discharged to a skilled nursing facility.

Full access

Micheal Raad, Jay S. Reidler, Mostafa H. El Dafrawy, Raj M. Amin, Amit Jain, Brian J. Neuman, Lee H. Riley III, Daniel M. Sciubba, Khaled M. Kebaish and Richard L. Skolasky

OBJECTIVE

It is important to identify differences in the treatment of common diseases over time and across geographic regions. Several studies have reported increased use of arthrodesis to treat lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). The purpose of this study was to investigate geographic variations in the treatment of LSS by US region.

METHODS

The authors reviewed inpatient and outpatient medical claims from 2010 to 2014 using the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database (Truven Health Analytics), which includes data on commercially insured members younger than 65 years. ICD-9 code 724.02 was used to identify patients aged ≥ 40 and < 65 years who underwent surgery for “spinal stenosis of the lumbar region” and for whom LSS was the only principal diagnosis. The primary outcome was the performance of spinal arthrodesis as part of the procedure. Geographic regions were based on patient residence and defined according to the US Census Bureau as the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West.

RESULTS

Rates of arthrodesis, as opposed to decompression alone, varied significantly by region, from 48% in the South, to 42% in the Midwest, 36% in the Northeast, and 31% in the West. After controlling for patient age, sex, and Charlson Comorbidity Index values, the differences remained significant. Compared with patients in the Northeast, those in the South (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.50–1.75) and Midwest (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.18–1.41) were significantly more likely to undergo spinal arthrodesis. On multivariate analysis, patients in the West were significantly less likely to have a prolonged hospital stay (> 3 days) than those in the Northeast (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75–0.94). Compared with the rate in the Northeast, the rates of discharge to a skilled nursing facility were lower in the South (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.31–0.55) and West (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.53–0.98). The 30-day readmission rate was significantly lower in the West (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.65–0.98) than in the Northeast and similar between the other regions. Mean payments were significantly higher in the Midwest (mean difference $5503, 95% CI $4279–$6762), South (mean difference $6187, 95% CI $5041–$7332), and West (mean difference $7732, 95% CI $6384–$9080) than in the Northeast.

CONCLUSIONS

The use of spinal arthrodesis, as well as surgical outcomes and payments for the treatment of LSS, varies significantly by US region. This highlights the importance of developing national recommendations for the treatment of LSS.

Free access

Rafa Rahman, Alvaro Ibaseta, Jay S. Reidler, Nicholas S. Andrade, Richard L. Skolasky, Lee H. Riley III, David B. Cohen, Daniel M. Sciubba, Khaled M. Kebaish and Brian J. Neuman

OBJECTIVE

The authors conducted a study to analyze associations between changes in depression/anxiety before and 12 months after spine surgery, as well as changes in scores using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) at the same time points.

METHODS

Preoperatively and 12 months postoperatively, the authors assessed PROMIS scores for depression, anxiety, pain, physical function, sleep disturbance, and satisfaction with participation in social roles among 206 patients undergoing spine surgery for deformity correction or degenerative disease. Patients were stratified according to preoperative/postoperative changes in depression and anxiety, which were categorized as persistent, improved, newly developed postoperatively, or absent. Multivariate regression was used to control for confounders and to compare changes in patient-reported outcomes (PROs).

RESULTS

Fifty patients (24%) had preoperative depression, which improved in 26 (52%). Ninety-four patients (46%) had preoperative anxiety, which improved in 70 (74%). Household income was the only preoperative characteristic that differed significantly between patients whose depression persisted and those whose depression improved. Compared with the no-depression group, patients with persistent depression had less improvement in all 4 domains, and patients with postoperatively developed depression had less improvement in pain, physical function, and satisfaction with social roles. Compared with the group of patients with postoperatively improved depression, patients with persistent depression had less improvement in pain and physical function, and patients with postoperatively developed depression had less improvement in pain. Compared with patients with no anxiety, those with persistent anxiety had less improvement in physical function, sleep disturbance, and satisfaction with social roles, and patients with postoperatively developed anxiety had less improvement in pain, physical function, and satisfaction with social roles. Compared with patients with postoperatively improved anxiety, patients with persistent anxiety had less improvement in pain, physical function, and satisfaction with social roles, and those with postoperatively developed anxiety had less improvement in pain, physical function, and satisfaction with social roles. All reported differences were significant at p < 0.05.

CONCLUSIONS

Many spine surgery patients experienced postoperative improvements in depression/anxiety. Improvements in 12-month PROs were smaller among patients with persistent or postoperatively developed depression/anxiety compared with patients who had no depression or anxiety before or after surgery and those whose depression/anxiety improved after surgery. Postoperative changes in depression/anxiety may have a greater effect than preoperative depression/anxiety on changes in PROs after spine surgery. Addressing the mental health of spine surgery patients may improve postoperative PROs.

CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE Type of question: causation; study design: prospective cohort study; evidence: class III.

Full access

Micheal Raad, Brian J. Neuman, Amit Jain, Hamid Hassanzadeh, Peter G. Passias, Eric Klineberg, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Themistocles S. Protopsaltis, Emily K. Miller, Justin S. Smith, Virginie Lafage, D. Kojo Hamilton, Shay Bess, Khaled M. Kebaish, Daniel M. Sciubba and the International Spine Study Group

OBJECTIVE

Given the recent shift in health care toward quality reporting requirements and a greater emphasis on a cost-quality approach, patient stratification with respect to long-term outcomes and the use of health care resources is of increasing value. Stratification tools may be effective if they are simple and evidence based. The authors hypothesize that preoperative patient-reported activity levels might independently predict postoperative outcomes in patients with adult spinal deformity.

METHODS

This is a retrospective cohort. A total of 575 patients in a prospective adult spinal deformity surgical database were identified with complete data regarding the preoperative level of activity. Answers to question 5 of the Scoliosis Research Society-22r Patient Questionnaire (SRS-22r) were used to stratify patients into active and inactive groups. Outcomes were length of hospital stay (LOS), level of activity, and reaching the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) for SRS-22r domains and the Physical Component Summary (PCS) of the SF-36 at 2 years postoperatively. The 2 groups were compared with respect to several potential confounders. Covariates with p < 0.1 were controlled for. The impact of activity on LOS was assessed using multivariate negative binomial regression analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models additionally controlling for the respective baseline health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores were used to assess the association between preoperative activity levels and reaching the MCID at 2 years postoperatively.

RESULTS

A total of 420 (73%) of the 575 patients who met the inclusion criteria had complete data at 2 years postoperatively. The inactive group was more likely to be significantly older, have a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index, worse baseline radiographic deformity, and greater correction of most radiographic parameters. After controlling for possible confounders, the active group had a significantly shorter LOS (incidence risk ratio 0.91, p = 0.043). After adding respective baseline HRQOL scores to the models, active patients were significantly more likely to reach the MCID for the SRS-22r pain domain (OR 1.72, p = 0.026) and PCS (OR 1.94, p = 0.013). Active patients were also significantly more likely to be active at 2 years postoperatively on multivariate analysis (OR 8.94, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ results show that patients who belong to the inactive group are likely to have a longer LOS and lower odds of reaching the MCID in HRQOL or being active at 2 years postoperatively. Inquiring about patients’ preoperative activity levels might be a reliable and simple stratification tool in terms of long- and short-term outcomes in ASD patients.

Free access

Emily K. Miller, Brian J. Neuman, Amit Jain, Alan H. Daniels, Tamir Ailon, Daniel M. Sciubba, Khaled M. Kebaish, Virginie Lafage, Justin K. Scheer, Justin S. Smith, Shay Bess, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Christopher P. Ames and the International Spine Study Group

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to analyze the value of an adult spinal deformity frailty index (ASD-FI) in preoperative risk stratification. Preoperative risk assessment is imperative before procedures known to have high complication rates, such as ASD surgery. Frailty has been associated with risk of complications in trauma surgery, and preoperative frailty assessments could improve the accuracy of risk stratification by providing a comprehensive analysis of patient factors that contribute to an increased risk of complications.

METHODS

Using 40 variables, the authors calculated frailty scores with a validated method for 417 patients (enrolled between 2010 and 2014) with a minimum 2-year follow-up in an ASD database. On the basis of these scores, the authors categorized patients as not frail (NF) (< 0.3 points), frail (0.3–0.5 points), or severely frail (SF) (> 0.5 points). The correlation between frailty category and incidence of complications was analyzed.

RESULTS

The overall mean ASD-FI score was 0.33 (range 0.0–0.8). Compared with NF patients (n = 183), frail patients (n = 158) and SF patients (n = 109) had longer mean hospital stays (1.2 and 1.6 times longer, respectively; p < 0.001). The adjusted odds of experiencing a major intraoperative or postoperative complication were higher for frail patients (OR 2.8) and SF patients ( 4.1) compared with NF patients (p < 0.01). For frail and SF patients, respectively, the adjusted odds of developing proximal junctional kyphosis (OR 2.8 and 3.1) were higher than those for NF patients. The SF patients had higher odds of developing pseudarthrosis (OR 13.0), deep wound infection (OR 8.0), and wound dehiscence (OR 13.4) than NF patients (p < 0.05), and they had 2.1 times greater odds of reoperation (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Greater patient frailty, as measured by the ASD-FI, was associated with worse outcome in many common quality and value metrics, including greater risk of major complications, proximal junctional kyphosis, pseudarthrosis, deep wound infection, wound dehiscence, reoperation, and longer hospital stay.

Free access

Gregory W. Poorman, Peter G. Passias, Samantha R. Horn, Nicholas J. Frangella, Alan H. Daniels, D. Kojo Hamilton, Hanjo Kim, Daniel Sciubba, Bassel G. Diebo, Cole A. Bortz, Frank A. Segreto, Michael P. Kelly, Justin S. Smith, Brian J. Neuman, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Virginie LaFage, Renaud LaFage, Christopher P. Ames, Robert Hart, Gregory M. Mundis Jr. and Robert Eastlack

OBJECTIVE

Depression and anxiety have been demonstrated to have negative impacts on outcomes after spine surgery. In patients with cervical deformity (CD), the psychological and physiological burdens of the disease may overlap without clear boundaries. While surgery has a proven record of bringing about significant pain relief and decreased disability, the impact of depression and anxiety on recovery from cervical deformity corrective surgery has not been previously reported on in the literature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of depression and anxiety on patients’ recovery from and improvement after CD surgery.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective review of a prospective, multicenter CD database. Patients with a history of clinical depression, in addition to those with current self-reported anxiety or depression, were defined as depressed (D group). The D group was compared with nondepressed patients (ND group) with a similar baseline deformity determined by propensity score matching of the cervical sagittal vertical axis (cSVA). Baseline demographic, comorbidity, clinical, and radiographic data were compared among patients using t-tests. Improvement of symptoms was recorded at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. All health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores collected at these follow-up time points were compared using t-tests.

RESULTS

Sixty-six patients were matched for baseline radiographic parameters: 33 with a history of depression and/or current depression, and 33 without. Depressed patients had similar age, sex, race, and radiographic alignment: cSVA, T-1 slope minus C2–7 lordosis, SVA, and T-1 pelvic angle (p > 0.05). Compared with nondepressed individuals, depressed patients had a higher incidence of osteoporosis (21.2% vs 3.2%, p = 0.028), rheumatoid arthritis (18.2% vs 3.2%, p = 0.012), and connective tissue disorders (18.2% vs 3.2%, p = 0.012). At baseline, the D group had greater neck pain (7.9 of 10 vs 6.6 on a Numeric Rating Scale [NRS], p = 0.015), lower mean EQ-5D scores (68.9 vs 74.7, p < 0.001), but similar Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores (57.5 vs 49.9, p = 0.063) and myelopathy scores (13.4 vs 13.9, p = 0.546). Surgeries performed in either group were similar in terms of number of levels fused, osteotomies performed, and correction achieved (baseline to 3-month measurements) (p < 0.05). At 3 months, EQ-5D scores remained lower in the D group (74.0 vs 78.2, p = 0.044), and NDI scores were similar (48.5 vs 39.0, p = 0.053). However, neck pain improved in the D group (NRS score of 5.0 vs 4.3, p = 0.331), and modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scores remained similar (14.2 vs 15.0, p = 0.211). At 6 months and 1 year, all HRQOL scores were similar between the 2 cohorts. One-year measurements were as follows: NDI 39.7 vs 40.7 (p = 0.878), NRS neck pain score of 4.1 vs 5.0 (p = 0.326), EQ-5D score of 77.1 vs 78.2 (p = 0.646), and mJOA score of 14.0 vs 14.2 (p = 0.835). Anxiety/depression levels reported on the EQ-5D scale were significantly higher in the depressed cohort at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months (all p < 0.05), but were similar between groups at 1 year postoperatively (1.72 vs 1.53, p = 0.416).

CONCLUSIONS

Clinical depression was observed in many of the study patients with CD. After matching for baseline deformity, depression symptomology resulted in worse baseline EQ-5D and pain scores. Despite these baseline differences, both cohorts achieved similar results in all HRQOL assessments 6 months and 1 year postoperatively, demonstrating no clinical impact of depression on recovery up until 1 year after CD surgery. Thus, a history of depression does not appear to have an impact on recovery from CD surgery.

Free access

David B. Bumpass, Lawrence G. Lenke, Jeffrey L. Gum, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Justin S. Smith, Christopher P. Ames, Shay Bess, Brian J. Neuman, Eric Klineberg, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Frank Schwab, Virginie Lafage, Han Jo Kim, Douglas C. Burton, Khaled M. Kebaish, Richard Hostin, Renaud Lafage, Michael P. Kelly and for the International Spine Study Group

OBJECTIVE

Adolescent spine deformity studies have shown that male patients require longer surgery and have greater estimated blood loss (EBL) and complications compared with female patients. No studies exist to support this relationship in adult spinal deformity (ASD). The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between sex and complications, deformity correction, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with ASD. It was hypothesized that male ASD patients would have greater EBL, longer surgery, and more complications than female ASD patients.

METHODS

A multicenter ASD cohort was retrospectively queried for patients who underwent primary posterior-only instrumented fusions with a minimum of 5 levels fused. The minimum follow-up was 2 years. Primary outcomes were EBL, operative time, intra-, peri-, and postoperative complications, radiographic correction, and HRQOL outcomes (Oswestry Disability Index, SF-36, and Scoliosis Research Society-22r Questionnaire). Poisson multivariate regression was used to control for age, comorbidities, and levels fused.

RESULTS

Ninety male and 319 female patients met the inclusion criteria. Male patients had significantly greater mean EBL (2373 ml vs 1829 ml, p = 0.01). The mean operative time, transfusion requirements, and final radiographic measurements did not differ between sexes. Similarly, changes in HRQOL showed no significant differences. Finally, there were no sex differences in the incidence of complications (total, major, or minor) at any time point after controlling for age, body mass index, comorbidities, and levels fused.

CONCLUSIONS

Despite higher EBL, male ASD patients did not experience more complications or require less deformity correction at the 2-year follow-up. HRQOL scores similarly showed no sex differences. These findings differ from adolescent deformity studies, and surgeons can counsel patients that sex is unlikely to influence the outcomes and complication rates of primary all-posterior ASD surgery.