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Brett E. Youngerman, Andrew K. Chan, Charles B. Mikell, Guy M. McKhann and Sameer A. Sheth

OBJECTIVE

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an emerging treatment option for an expanding set of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Despite growing enthusiasm, the patterns and implications of this rapid adoption are largely unknown. National trends in DBS surgery performed for all indications between 2002 and 2011 are reported.

METHODS

Using a national database of hospital discharges, admissions for DBS for 14 indications were identified and categorized as either FDA approved, humanitarian device exempt (HDE), or emerging. Trends over time were examined, differences were analyzed by univariate analyses, and outcomes were analyzed by hierarchical regression analyses.

RESULTS

Between 2002 and 2011, there were an estimated 30,490 discharges following DBS for approved indications, 1647 for HDE indications, and 2014 for emerging indications. The volume for HDE and emerging indications grew at 36.1% annually in comparison with 7.0% for approved indications. DBS for emerging indications occurred at hospitals with more neurosurgeons and neurologists locally, but not necessarily at those with the highest DBS caseloads. Patients treated for HDE and emerging indications were younger with lower comorbidity scores. HDE and emerging indications were associated with greater rates of reported complications, longer lengths of stay, and greater total costs.

CONCLUSIONS

DBS for HDE and emerging indications underwent rapid growth in the last decade, and it is not exclusively the most experienced DBS practitioners leading the charge to treat the newest indications. Surgeons may be selecting younger and healthier patients for their early experiences. Differences in reported complication rates warrant further attention and additional costs should be anticipated as surgeons gain experience with new patient populations and targets.

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Lauren T. Brown, Charles B. Mikell, Brett E. Youngerman, Yuan Zhang, Guy M. McKhann II and Sameer A. Sheth

OBJECT

The object of this study was to perform a systematic review, according to Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) guidelines, of the clinical efficacy and adverse effect profile of dorsal anterior cingulotomy compared with anterior capsulotomy for the treatment of severe, refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

METHODS

The authors included studies comparing objective clinical measures before and after cingulotomy or capsulotomy (surgical and radiosurgical) in patients with OCD. Only papers reporting the most current follow-up data for each group of investigators were included. Studies reporting results on patients undergoing one or more procedures other than cingulotomy or capsulotomy were excluded. Case reports and studies with a mean follow-up shorter than 12 months were excluded. Clinical response was defined in terms of a change in the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score. The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge through October 2013. English and non-English articles and abstracts were reviewed.

RESULTS

Ten studies involving 193 participants evaluated the length of follow-up, change in the Y-BOCS score, and postoperative adverse events (AEs) after cingulotomy (n = 2 studies, n = 81 participants) or capsulotomy (n = 8 studies, n = 112 participants). The average time to the last follow-up was 47 months for cingulotomy and 60 months for capsulotomy. The mean reduction in the Y-BOCS score at 12 months’ follow-up was 37% for cingulotomy and 55% for capsulotomy. At the last follow-up, the mean reduction in Y-BOCS score was 37% for cingulotomy and 57% for capsulotomy. The average full response rate to cingulotomy at the last follow-up was 41% (range 38%–47%, n = 2 studies, n = 51 participants), and to capsulotomy was 54% (range 37%–80%, n = 5 studies, n = 50 participants). The rate of transient AEs was 14.3% across cingulotomy studies (n = 116 procedures) and 56.2% across capsulotomy studies (n = 112 procedures). The rate of serious or permanent AEs was 5.2% across cingulotomy studies and 21.4% across capsulotomy studies.

CONCLUSIONS

This systematic review of the literature supports the efficacy of both dorsal anterior cingulotomy and anterior capsulotomy in this highly treatment-refractory population. The observational nature of available data limits the ability to directly compare these procedures. Controlled or head-to-head studies are necessary to identify differences in efficacy or AEs and may lead to the individualization of treatment recommendations.

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Evan F. Joiner, Brett E. Youngerman, Taylor S. Hudson, Jingyan Yang, Mary R. Welch, Guy M. McKhann II, Alfred I. Neugut and Jeffrey N. Bruce

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the impact of perioperative antiepileptic drug (AED) prophylaxis on short- and long-term seizure incidence among patients undergoing brain tumor surgery. It is the first meta-analysis to focus exclusively on perioperative AED prophylaxis among patients undergoing brain tumor surgery.

METHODS

The authors searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, clinicaltrials.gov, and the System for Information on Gray Literature in Europe for records related to perioperative AED prophylaxis for patients with brain tumors. Risk of bias in the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Incidence rates for early seizures (within the first postoperative week) and total seizures were estimated based on data from randomized controlled trials. A Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model was used to analyze pooled relative risk (RR) of early seizures (within the first postoperative week) and total seizures associated with perioperative AED prophylaxis versus control.

RESULTS

Four RCTs involving 352 patients met the criteria of inclusion. The results demonstrated that perioperative AED prophylaxis for patients undergoing brain tumor surgery provides a statistically significant reduction in risk of early postoperative seizures compared with control (RR = 0.352, 95% confidence interval 0.130–0.949, p = 0.039). AED prophylaxis had no statistically significant effect on the total (combined short- and long-term) incidence of seizures.

CONCLUSIONS

This meta-analysis demonstrates for the first time that perioperative AED prophylaxis for brain tumor surgery provides a statistically significant reduction in early postoperative seizure risk.

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Hannah E. Goldstein, Brett E. Youngerman, Belinda Shao, Cigdem I. Akman, Arthur M. Mandel, Danielle K. McBrian, James J. Riviello, Sameer A. Sheth, Guy M. McKhann and Neil A. Feldstein

OBJECTIVE

Patients with medically refractory localization-related epilepsy (LRE) may be candidates for surgical intervention if the seizure onset zone (SOZ) can be well localized. Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) offers an attractive alternative to subdural grid and strip electrode implantation for seizure lateralization and localization; yet there are few series reporting the safety and efficacy of SEEG in pediatric patients.

METHODS

The authors review their initial 3-year consecutive experience with SEEG in pediatric patients with LRE. SEEG coverage, SOZ localization, complications, and preliminary seizure outcomes following subsequent surgical treatments are assessed.

RESULTS

Twenty-five pediatric patients underwent 30 SEEG implantations, with a total of 342 electrodes placed. Ten had prior resections or ablations. Seven had no MRI abnormalities, and 8 had multiple lesions on MRI. Based on preimplantation hypotheses, 7 investigations were extratemporal (ET), 1 was only temporal-limbic (TL), and 22 were combined ET/TL investigations. Fourteen patients underwent bilateral investigations. On average, patients were monitored for 8 days postimplant (range 3–19 days). Nearly all patients were discharged home on the day following electrode explantation.

There were no major complications. Minor complications included 1 electrode deflection into the subdural space, resulting in a minor asymptomatic extraaxial hemorrhage; and 1 in-house and 1 delayed electrode superficial scalp infection, both treated with local wound care and oral antibiotics.

SEEG localized the hypothetical SOZ in 23 of 25 patients (92%). To date, 18 patients have undergone definitive surgical intervention. In 2 patients, SEEG localized the SOZ near eloquent cortex and subdural grids were used to further delineate the seizure focus relative to mapped motor function just prior to resection. At last follow-up (average 21 months), 8 of 15 patients with at least 6 months of follow-up (53%) were Engel class I, and an additional 6 patients (40%) were Engel class II or III. Only 1 patient was Engel class IV.

CONCLUSIONS

SEEG is a safe and effective technique for invasive SOZ localization in medically refractory LRE in the pediatric population. SEEG permits bilateral and multilobar investigations while avoiding large craniotomies. It is conducive to deep, 3D, and perilesional investigations, particularly in cases of prior resections. Patients who are not found to have focally localizable seizures are spared craniotomies.

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Michael D. Jenkinson, Arousa Ali, Abdurrahman I. Islim, Adel Helmy and Robin Grant

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Benjamin C. Kennedy, Randy S. D’Amico, Brett E. Youngerman, Michael M. McDowell, Kristopher G. Hooten, Daniel Couture, Andrew Jea, Jeffrey Leonard, Sean M. Lew, David W. Pincus, Luis Rodriguez, Gerald F. Tuite, Michael L. Diluna, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, Richard C. E. Anderson and Pediatric Craniocervical Society

OBJECT

The long-term consequences of atlantoaxial (AA) and occipitocervical (OC) fusion and instrumentation in young children are unknown. Anecdotal reports have raised concerns regarding altered growth and alignment of the cervical spine after surgical intervention. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term effects of these surgeries on the growth and alignment of the maturing spine.

METHODS

A multiinstitutional retrospective chart review was conducted for patients less than or equal to 6 years of age who underwent OC or AA fusion with rigid instrumentation at 9 participating centers. All patients had at least 3 years of clinical and radiographic follow-up data and radiographically confirmed fusion. Preoperative, immediate postoperative, and most recent follow-up radiographs and/or CT scans were evaluated to assess changes in spinal growth and alignment.

RESULTS

Forty children (9 who underwent AA fusion and 31 who underwent OC fusion) were included in the study (mean follow-up duration 56 months). The mean vertical growth over the fused levels in the AA fusion patients represented 30% of the growth of the cervical spine (range 10%–50%). Three different vertical growth patterns of the fusion construct developed among the 31 OC fusion patients during the follow-up period: 1) 16 patients had substantial growth (13%–46% of the total growth of the cervical spine); 2) 9 patients had no meaningful growth; and 3) 6 patients, most of whom presented with a distracted atlantooccipital dislocation, had a decrease in the height of the fused levels (range 7–23 mm). Regarding spinal alignment, 85% (34/40) of the patients had good alignment at follow-up, with straight or mildly lordotic cervical curvatures. In 1 AA fusion patient (11%) and 5 OC fusion patients (16%), we observed new hyperlordosis (range 43°–62°). There were no cases of new kyphosis or swan-neck deformity, evidence of subaxial instability, or unintended subaxial fusion. No preoperative predictors of these growth patterns or alignment were evident.

CONCLUSIONS

These results demonstrate that most young children undergoing AA and OC fusion with rigid internal fixation continue to have good cervical alignment and continued growth within the fused levels during a prolonged follow-up period. However, some variability in vertical growth and alignment exists, highlighting the need to continue close long-term follow-up.