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Gabriel Zada, Vance L. Fredrickson, and Bozena B. Wrobel

Meningiomas are the most prevalent primary intracranial tumor, with 3%–10% arising from the tuberculum sellae. Optimal management consists of total microsurgical resection with preservation of surrounding structures. The authors present a 64-year-old woman with progressive bilateral vision loss, including visual acuity deficits and bitemporal hemianopsia. MRI revealed a 2-cm tuberculum sellae meningioma causing optic apparatus compression. An extended endoscopic endonasal transtuberculum approach was utilized for gross-total resection, including microdissection of tumor from the optic chiasm and infundibulum. Closure was performed with multilayer tensor fascia lata autograft and a pedicled nasal-septal flap. The patient’s postoperative exam showed visual improvement and normal pituitary function.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/ZfNB_rhlyeI.

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Daniel A. Donoho, Dhiraj J. Pangal, Guillaume Kugener, Martin Rutkowski, Alexander Micko, Shane Shahrestani, Andrew Brunswick, Michael Minneti, Bozena B. Wrobel, and Gabriel Zada

OBJECTIVE

Internal carotid artery injury (ICAI) is a rare, life-threatening complication of endoscopic endonasal approaches that will be encountered by most skull base neurosurgeons and otolaryngologists. Rates of surgical proficiency for managing ICAI are not known, and the role of simulation to improve performance has not been studied on a nationwide scale.

METHODS

Attending and resident neurosurgery and otorhinolaryngology surgeons (n = 177) were recruited from multicenter regional and national training courses to assess training outcomes and validity at scale of a prospective educational intervention to improve surgeon technical skills using a previously validated, perfused human cadaveric simulator. Participants attempted an initial trial (T1) of simulated ICAI control using their preferred technique. An educational intervention including personalized instruction was performed. Participants attempted a second trial (T2). Task success (dichotomous), time to hemostasis (TTH), estimated blood loss (EBL), and surgeon heart rate were measured.

RESULTS

Participant rating scales confirmed that the simulation retained face and construct validity across eight instructional settings. Trial success (ICAI control) improved from 56% in T1 to 90% in T2 (p < 0.0001). EBL and TTH decreased by 37% and 38%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Postintervention resident surgeon performance (TTH, EBL, and success rate) was superior to preintervention attending surgeon performance. The most improved quartile of participants achieved 62% improvement in TTH and 73% improvement in EBL, with trial success improvement from 25.6% in T1 to 100% in T2 (p < 0.0001). Baseline surgeon confidence was uncorrelated with T1 success, while posttraining confidence correlated with T2 success. Tachycardia was measured in 57% of surgeon participants, but was attenuated during T2, consistent with development of resiliency.

CONCLUSIONS

Prior to training, many attending and most resident surgeons could not manage the rare, life-threatening intraoperative complication of ICAI. A simulated educational intervention significantly improved surgeon performance and remained valid when deployed at scale. Simulation also promoted the development of favorable cognitive skills (accurate perception of skill and resiliency). Rare, life-threatening intraoperative complications may be optimal targets for educational interventions using surgical simulation.

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Eisha A. Christian, Joshua Bakhsheshian, Ben A. Strickland, Vance L. Fredrickson, Ian A. Buchanan, Martin H. Pham, Andrew Cervantes, Michael Minneti, Bozena B. Wrobel, Steven Giannotta, and Gabriel Zada

OBJECTIVE

Competency in endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEAs) to repair high-flow cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks is an essential component of the neurosurgical training process. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a simulation model for EEA repair of anterior skull base CSF leaks.

METHODS

Human cadaveric specimens were utilized with a perfusion system to simulate a high-flow CSF leak. Neurological surgery residents (postgraduate year 3 or greater) performed a standard EEA to repair a CSF leak using a combination of fat, fascia lata, and pedicled nasoseptal flaps. A standardized 5-point Likert questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge gained, techniques learned, degree of safety, benefit of CSF perfusion during repair, and pre- and posttraining confidence scores.

RESULTS

Intrathecal perfusion of fluorescein-infused saline into the ventricular/subarachnoid space was successful in 9 of 9 cases. The addition of CSF reconstitution offered the residents visual feedback for confirmation of intraoperative CSF leak repair. Residents gained new knowledge and a realistic simulation experience by rehearsing the psychomotor skills and techniques required to repair a CSF leak with fat and fascial grafts, as well as to prepare and rotate vascularized nasoseptal flaps. All trainees reported feeling safer with the procedure in a clinical setting and higher average posttraining confidence scores (pretraining 2.22 ± 0.83, posttraining 4.22 ± 0.44, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Perfusion-based human cadaveric models can be utilized as a simulation training model for repairing CSF leaks during EEA.