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Anand Veeravagu, Marco Lee, Bowen Jiang and Steven D. Chang

The treatment of craniopharyngiomas is composed of an intricate balance of multiple modalities. Resection and radiotherapy have been combined to synergistically control tumor growth while preventing undue harm to crucial neurovascular structures. Although a craniopharyngioma is a benign lesion pathologically, it may induce severe neurological injury due to its location and rate of growth. More recently, the advent of targeted, fractionated radiotherapy has allowed for more aggressive tumor control while reducing the necessity for large resections. Initial studies have demonstrated significant tumor control in patients who are treated with resection combined with radiation therapy, versus surgery alone, with a lower rate of treatment-associated neurological deficits. In this review, a detailed account of the current studies evaluating the role of stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of craniopharyngiomas is presented. The authors also provide a short account of their experience to aid in defining the role of CyberKnife radiosurgery.

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Bowen Jiang, Harry Mushlin, Lei Zhang, Aaron W. James and Alan R. Cohen

Scalp and calvarial masses are common in children and the differential diagnosis is broad. The authors recently cared for a child with an unusual fibro-osseous lesion of the temporal bone that has previously not been described in the pediatric neurosurgery literature. A 10-year-old girl presented with a firm, slowly enlarging protuberant mass arising from the squamous suture of the temporal bone without intracranial extension. The mass was removed en bloc through a temporal craniectomy and cranioplasty was performed. The patient had a smooth postoperative course. Histological examination showed multiple oval osseous islands dispersed throughout a bland fibrous stroma. The pathological diagnosis was “Bullough’s bump,” a rare, benign fibro-osseous neoplasm first described in 1999, and only 8 reported cases appear in the literature. Here the authors report the first case of Bullough’s bump in a child.

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Wanru Duan, Dean Chou, Bowen Jiang, Zhenlei Liu, Xinghua Zhao, Zhiyuan Xia, Fengzeng Jian and Zan Chen

OBJECTIVE

The treatment of atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) and basilar invagination (BI) is challenging, especially in symptomatic patients with a history of previous surgery. Although seldom reported, posterior revision surgery to revise prior constructs can be advantageous over an anterior or combined approach. The authors describe their experience in performing posterior revision surgery using Goel’s technique.

METHODS

The authors reviewed patients with AAD and BI who had undergone previous posterior surgery at the cranio-cervical junction between January 2016 and September 2017. All of these patients underwent revision surgery from a posterior approach. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score was used to assess clinical symptoms before and after surgery. The distance from the tip of the odontoid to Chamberlain’s line, atlantodental interval (ADI), and clivus-canal angle (CCA) were used for radiographic assessment before and after surgery.

RESULTS

Twelve consecutive patients were reviewed. Prior surgeries were as follows: 4 patients (4/12) with posterior osseous decompression without fusion, 7 (7/12) with reduction and fusion without decompression, and 1 (1/12) with posterior osseous decompression and reduction and fusion. With the use of Goel’s technique for revision in these cases, distraction using facet spacers afforded release of the anterior soft tissue from a posterior approach. The occiput was fixated to C2 using a cantilever technique, and autologous cancellous bone was grafted into the intraarticular joints. In all 12 patients, complete reduction of BI and AAD were achieved without injury to nerves or vessels. All patients had evidence of bony fusion on CT scans within 18 months of follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

Posterior revision surgery using Goel’s technique is an effective and safe revision salvage surgery for symptomatic patients with AAD and BI.

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Geoffrey P. Colby, Bowen Jiang, Matthew T. Bender, Narlin B. Beaty, Erick M. Westbroek, Risheng Xu, Li-Mei Lin, Jessica K. Campos, Rafael J. Tamargo, Judy Huang, Alan R. Cohen and Alexander L. Coon

Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare entities. The authors recently treated a 9-month-old infant with a 19-mm recurrent, previously ruptured, and coil-embolized left middle cerebral artery (MCA) pseudoaneurysm, which was treated definitively with single-stage Pipeline-assisted coil embolization. The patient was 5 months old when she underwent resection of a left temporal Grade 1 desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma at an outside institution, which was complicated by left MCA injury with a resultant 9-mm left M1 pseudoaneurysm. Within a month, the patient had two aneurysmal rupture events and underwent emergency craniectomy for decompression and evacuation of subdural hematoma. The pseudoaneurysm initially underwent coil embolization; however, follow-up MR angiography (MRA) revealed aneurysm recanalization with saccular enlargement to 19 mm. The patient underwent successful flow diversion–assisted coil embolization at 9 months of age. At 7 months after the procedure, follow-up MRA showed complete aneurysm occlusion without evidence of in-stent thrombosis or stenosis. Experience with flow diverters in the pediatric population is still in its early phases, with the youngest reported patient being 22 months old. In this paper the authors report the first case of such a technique in an infant, whom they believe to be the youngest patient to undergo cerebral flow diversion treatment.

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Geoffrey P. Colby, Matthew T. Bender, Li-Mei Lin, Narlin Beaty, Justin M. Caplan, Bowen Jiang, Erick M. Westbroek, Bijan Varjavand, Jessica K. Campos, Judy Huang, Rafael J. Tamargo and Alexander L. Coon

OBJECTIVE

The second-generation Pipeline embolization device (PED), Flex, has several design upgrades, including improved opening and the ability to be resheathed, in comparison with the original device (PED classic). The authors hypothesized that Flex is associated with a lower rate of major complications.

METHODS

A prospective, IRB-approved, single-institution database was analyzed for all patients with anterior circulation aneurysms treated by flow diversion. The PED classic was used from August 2011 to January 2015, and the Pipeline Flex has been used since February 2015.

RESULTS

A total of 568 PED procedures (252 classic and 316 Flex) were performed for anterior circulation aneurysms. The average aneurysm size was 6.8 mm. Patients undergoing treatment with the Flex device had smaller aneurysms (p = 0.006) and were more likely to have undergone previous treatments (p = 0.001). Most aneurysms originated along the internal carotid artery (89% classic and 75% Flex) but there were more anterior cerebral artery (18%) and middle cerebral artery (7%) deployments with Flex (p = 0.001). Procedural success was achieved in 96% of classic and 98% of Flex cases (p = 0.078). Major morbidity or death occurred in 3.5% of cases overall: 5.6% of classic cases, and 1.9% of Flex cases (p = 0.019). On multivariate logistic regression, predictors of major complications were in situ thrombosis (OR 4.3, p = 0.006), classic as opposed to Flex device (OR 3.7, p = 0.008), and device deployment in the anterior cerebral artery or middle cerebral artery as opposed to the internal carotid artery (OR 3.5, p = 0.034).

CONCLUSIONS

Flow diversion of anterior circulation cerebral aneurysms is associated with an overall low rate of major complications. The complication rate is significantly lower since the introduction of the second-generation PED (Flex).

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Matthew T. Bender, Geoffrey P. Colby, Li-Mei Lin, Bowen Jiang, Erick M. Westbroek, Risheng Xu, Jessica K. Campos, Judy Huang, Rafael J. Tamargo and Alexander L. Coon

OBJECTIVE

Flow diversion requires neointimal stent overgrowth to deliver aneurysm occlusion. The existing literature on aneurysm occlusion is limited by heterogeneous follow-up, variable antiplatelet regimens, noninvasive imaging modalities, and nonstandard occlusion assessment. Using a large, single-center cohort with low attrition and standardized antiplatelet tapering, the authors evaluated outcomes after flow diversion of anterior circulation aneurysms to identify predictors of occlusion and aneurysm persistence.

METHODS

Data from a prospective, IRB-approved database was analyzed for all patients with anterior circulation aneurysms treated by flow diversion with the Pipeline embolization device (PED) at the authors’ institution. Follow-up consisted of catheter cerebral angiography at 6 and 12 months postembolization. Clopidogrel was discontinued at 6 months and aspirin was reduced to 81 mg daily at 12 months. Occlusion was graded as complete, trace filling, entry remnant, or aneurysm filling. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of aneurysm persistence.

RESULTS

Follow-up catheter angiography studies were available for 445 (91%) of 491 PED procedures performed for anterior circulation aneurysms between August 2011 and August 2016. Three hundred eighty-seven patients accounted for these 445 lesions with follow-up angiography. The population was 84% female; mean age was 56 years and mean aneurysm size was 6.6 mm. Aneurysms arose from the internal carotid artery (83%), anterior cerebral artery (13%), and middle cerebral artery (4%). Morphology was saccular in 90% of the lesions, and 18% of the aneurysms has been previously treated. Overall, complete occlusion was achieved in 82% of cases at a mean follow-up of 14 months. Complete occlusion was achieved in 72%, 78%, and 87% at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. At 12 months, adjunctive coiling predicted occlusion (OR 0.260, p = 0.036), while male sex (OR 2.923, p = 0.032), aneurysm size (OR 3.584, p = 0.011), and incorporation of a branch vessel (OR 2.206, p = 0.035) predicted persistence. Notable variables that did not predict aneurysm occlusion were prior treatments, vessel of origin, fusiform morphology, and number of devices used.

CONCLUSIONS

This is the largest single-institution study showing high rates of anterior circulation aneurysm occlusion after Pipeline embolization. Predictors of persistence after flow diversion included increasing aneurysm size and incorporated branch vessel, whereas adjunctive coiling predicted occlusion.

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Matthew T. Bender, Geoffrey P. Colby, Li-Mei Lin, Bowen Jiang, Erick M. Westbroek, Risheng Xu, Jessica K. Campos, Judy Huang, Rafael J. Tamargo and Alexander L. Coon

OBJECTIVE

Flow diversion requires neointimal stent overgrowth to deliver aneurysm occlusion. The existing literature on aneurysm occlusion is limited by heterogeneous follow-up, variable antiplatelet regimens, noninvasive imaging modalities, and nonstandard occlusion assessment. Using a large, single-center cohort with low attrition and standardized antiplatelet tapering, the authors evaluated outcomes after flow diversion of anterior circulation aneurysms to identify predictors of occlusion and aneurysm persistence.

METHODS

Data from a prospective, IRB-approved database was analyzed for all patients with anterior circulation aneurysms treated by flow diversion with the Pipeline embolization device (PED) at the authors’ institution. Follow-up consisted of catheter cerebral angiography at 6 and 12 months postembolization. Clopidogrel was discontinued at 6 months and aspirin was reduced to 81 mg daily at 12 months. Occlusion was graded as complete, trace filling, entry remnant, or aneurysm filling. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of aneurysm persistence.

RESULTS

Follow-up catheter angiography studies were available for 445 (91%) of 491 PED procedures performed for anterior circulation aneurysms between August 2011 and August 2016. Three hundred eighty-seven patients accounted for these 445 lesions with follow-up angiography. The population was 84% female; mean age was 56 years and mean aneurysm size was 6.6 mm. Aneurysms arose from the internal carotid artery (83%), anterior cerebral artery (13%), and middle cerebral artery (4%). Morphology was saccular in 90% of the lesions, and 18% of the aneurysms has been previously treated. Overall, complete occlusion was achieved in 82% of cases at a mean follow-up of 14 months. Complete occlusion was achieved in 72%, 78%, and 87% at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. At 12 months, adjunctive coiling predicted occlusion (OR 0.260, p = 0.036), while male sex (OR 2.923, p = 0.032), aneurysm size (OR 3.584, p = 0.011), and incorporation of a branch vessel (OR 2.206, p = 0.035) predicted persistence. Notable variables that did not predict aneurysm occlusion were prior treatments, vessel of origin, fusiform morphology, and number of devices used.

CONCLUSIONS

This is the largest single-institution study showing high rates of anterior circulation aneurysm occlusion after Pipeline embolization. Predictors of persistence after flow diversion included increasing aneurysm size and incorporated branch vessel, whereas adjunctive coiling predicted occlusion.