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Bob S. Carter

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Javier M. Figueroa and Bob S. Carter

The detection of glioblastoma (GBM) in biofluids offers potential advantages over existing paradigms for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of glial tumors. Biofluid-based detection of GBM focuses on detecting tumor-specific biomarkers in the blood and CSF. Current clinical research concentrates on studying 3 distinct tumor-related elements: extracellular macromolecules, extracellular vesicles, and circulating tumor cells. Investigations into these 3 biological classifications span the range of locales for tumor-specific biomarker discovery, and combined, have the potential to significantly impact GBM diagnosis, monitoring for treatment response, and surveillance for recurrence. This review highlights the recent advancements in the development of biomarkers and their efficacy for the detection of GBM.

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Introduction

Low-grade gliomas

Mitchel S. Berger and Bob S. Carter

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Bob S. Carter and E. Antonio Chiocca

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Fredric B. Meyer

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R. Loch Macdonald

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Fred G. Barker II and Bob S. Carter

Systematic reviews and metaanalyses have become increasingly popular ways of summarizing, and sometimes extending, existing medical knowledge. In this review the authors summarize current methods of performing meta-analyses, including the following: formulating a research question; performing a structured literature search and a search for trials not published in the formal medical literature; summarizing and, where appropriate, combining results from several trials; and reporting and presenting results. Topics such as cumulative and Bayesian metaanalysis and metaregression are also addressed. References to textbooks, articles, and Internet resources are also provided. The goal is to assist readers who wish to perform their own metaanalysis or to interpret critically a published example.

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Bob S. Carter, Jonathan L. Brisman, and Christopher S. Ogilvy

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Carlos E. Sanchez, Christopher S. Ogilvy, and Bob S. Carter

✓Successfully measuring cerebrovascular neurosurgery outcomes requires an appreciation of the current state-of-the-art epidemiological instruments, their specific relevance to surgical treatments and the underlying pathological entity, and ultimately the right set of questions for the next generation of studies. In this paper the authors address these questions with specific attention to measurement targets, individual modeling scales, and types of studies, all within a conceptual framework for specific disease models in their current state of outcomes modeling in cerebrovascular neurosurgery.

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Justin M. Brown, Bob S. Carter, Keith E. Tansey, and Ross Zafonte