Bob S. Carter
Javier M. Figueroa and Bob S. Carter
The detection of glioblastoma (GBM) in biofluids offers potential advantages over existing paradigms for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of glial tumors. Biofluid-based detection of GBM focuses on detecting tumor-specific biomarkers in the blood and CSF. Current clinical research concentrates on studying 3 distinct tumor-related elements: extracellular macromolecules, extracellular vesicles, and circulating tumor cells. Investigations into these 3 biological classifications span the range of locales for tumor-specific biomarker discovery, and combined, have the potential to significantly impact GBM diagnosis, monitoring for treatment response, and surveillance for recurrence. This review highlights the recent advancements in the development of biomarkers and their efficacy for the detection of GBM.
R. Loch Macdonald
Mitchel S. Berger and Bob S. Carter
Fred G. Barker II and Bob S. Carter
Systematic reviews and metaanalyses have become increasingly popular ways of summarizing, and sometimes extending, existing medical knowledge. In this review the authors summarize current methods of performing meta-analyses, including the following: formulating a research question; performing a structured literature search and a search for trials not published in the formal medical literature; summarizing and, where appropriate, combining results from several trials; and reporting and presenting results. Topics such as cumulative and Bayesian metaanalysis and metaregression are also addressed. References to textbooks, articles, and Internet resources are also provided. The goal is to assist readers who wish to perform their own metaanalysis or to interpret critically a published example.
Fredric B. Meyer
Justin M. Brown, Mark A. Mahan, Ross Mandeville and Bob S. Carter
Neurosurgery is experiencing the emergence of a new subspecialty focused on function restoration. New, evolving, and reappraised surgical procedures have provided an opportunity to restore function to many patients with previously undertreated disorders. Candidates for reconstruction were previously limited to those with peripheral nerve and brachial plexus injuries, but this has been expanded to include stroke, spinal cord injury, and a host of other paralyzing disorders affecting both upper and lower motor neurons. Similar to the recent evolution of the well-established subdisciplines of spinal and vascular neurosurgery, reconstructive neurosurgery requires the adaptation of techniques and skills that were not traditionally a part of neurosurgical training. Neurosurgeons—as the specialists who already manage this patient population and possess the requisite surgical skills to master the required techniques—have a unique opportunity to lead the development of this field. The full development of this subspecialty will lay the foundation for the subsequent addition of emerging treatments, such as neuroprosthetics and stem cell–based interventions. As such, reconstructive neurosurgery represents an important aspect of neurosurgical training that can ameliorate many of the deficits encountered in the traditional practice of neurosurgery.