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Travis J. Atchley, Blake Sowers, Anastasia A. Arynchyna, Curtis J. Rozzelle, and Brandon G. Rocque

OBJECTIVE

The advent of neuroendoscopy revolutionized the management of complex hydrocephalus. Fenestration of the septum pellucidum (septostomy) is often a therapeutic and/or necessary intervention in neuroendoscopy. However, these procedures are not without risk. The authors sought to record the incidence and types of complications. They attempted to discern if there was decreased likelihood of septostomy complications in patients who underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV)/choroid plexus cauterization (CPC) as compared with those who underwent other procedures and those with larger ventricles preoperatively. The authors investigated different operative techniques and their possible relationships to septostomy complications.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed all neuroendoscopic procedures with Current Procedural Terminology code 62161 performed from January 2003 until June 2019 at their institution. Septostomy, either alone or in conjunction with other procedures, was performed in 118 cases. Basic demographic characteristics, clinical histories, operative details/findings, and adverse events (intraoperative and postoperative) were collected. Pearson chi-square and univariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Patients with incomplete records were excluded.

RESULTS

Of 118 procedures, 29 (24.5%) septostomies had either intraoperative or postoperative complications. The most common intraoperative complication was bleeding, as noted in 12 (10.2%) septostomies. Neuroendocrine dysfunction, including apnea, bradycardia, neurological deficit, seizure, etc., was the most common postoperative complication and seen after 15 (12.7%) procedures. No significant differences in complications were noted between ventricular size or morphology or between different operative techniques or ventricular approaches. There was no significant difference between the complication rate of patients who underwent ETV/CPC and that of patients who underwent septostomy as a part of other procedures. Greater length of surgery (OR 1.013) was associated with septostomy complications.

CONCLUSIONS

Neuroendoscopy for hydrocephalus due to varying etiologies provides significant utility but is not without risk. The authors did not find associations between larger ventricular size or posterior endoscope approach and lower complication rates, as hypothesized. No significant difference in complication rates was noted between septostomy performed during ETV/CPC and other endoscopic procedures requiring septostomy.

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Travis J. Atchley, Galal A. Elsayed, Blake Sowers, Harrison C. Walker, Gustavo Chagoya, Matthew C. Davis, Joshua D. Bernstock, Nidal B. Omar, Daxa M. Patel, and Barton L. Guthrie

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of seizures following deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode implantation and to evaluate factors associated with postoperative seizures.

METHODS

The authors performed a single-center retrospective case-control study. The outcome of interest was seizure associated with DBS implantation. Univariate analyses were performed using the Student t-test for parametric continuous outcomes. The authors used the Kruskal-Wallis test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test for nonparametric continuous outcomes, chi-square statistics for categorical outcomes, and multivariate logistic regression for binomial variables.

RESULTS

A total of 814 DBS electrode implantations were performed in 645 patients (478 [58.7%] in men and 520 [63.9%] in patients with Parkinson’s disease). In total, 22 (3.4%) patients who had undergone 23 (2.8%) placements experienced seizure. Of the 23 DBS implantation–related seizures, 21 were new-onset seizures (3.3% of 645 patients) and 2 were recurrence or worsening of a prior seizure disorder. Among the 23 cases with postimplantation-related seizure, epilepsy developed in 4 (17.4%) postoperatively; the risk of DBS-associated epilepsy was 0.50% per DBS electrode placement and 0.63% per patient. Nine (39.1%) implantation-related seizures had associated postoperative radiographic abnormalities. Multivariate analyses suggested that age at surgery conferred a modest increased risk for postoperative seizures (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.10). Sex, primary diagnosis, electrode location and sidedness, and the number of trajectories were not significantly associated with seizures after DBS surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

Seizures associated with DBS electrode placement are uncommon, typically occur early within the postoperative period, and seldom lead to epilepsy. This study suggests that patient characteristics, such as age, may play a greater role than perioperative variables in determining seizure risk. Multiinstitutional studies may help better define and mitigate the risk of seizures after DBS surgery.