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  • Author or Editor: Blaise V. Jones x
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Weihong Yuan, Scott K. Holland, Blaise V. Jones, Kerry Crone and Francesco T. Mangano

Object

Diffusion tensor (DT) imaging was used in children with supratentorial tumors to evaluate the anisotropic diffusion properties between different tumor grades and between tumors and adjacent and contralateral white matter.

Methods

In this retrospective review, the authors review the cases of 16 children (age range 1–18 years) who presented to their institution with supratentorial tumors and were treated between 2004 and 2007. Eleven patients had low-grade and 5 had high-grade tumors. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, and axial (λ) and radial (λ) eigenvalues within selected regions were studied. Mitotic index, necrosis, and vascularity of the tumors were compared with DT imaging parameters.

Results

The mean diffusivity was significantly higher in low-grade than in high-grade tumors (p = 0.04); the 2 tumor grades also significantly differed for both λ (p < 0.05) and λ (p < 0.05). Mean diffusivity values in low-grade tumors were significantly higher than in adjacent normal-appearing white matter (NAWM; p = 0.0004) and contralateral NAWM (p = 0.0001). In both low- and high-grade tumors, the FA was significantly lower than in NAWM (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.03, respectively) and contralateral NAWM (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.003, respectively). Tumor cellularity highly correlated with mean diffusivity and λand λ.

Conclusions

Diffusion tensor imaging is a useful tool in the evaluation of supratentorial tumors in children. The mean diffusivity appears to be a significant marker in differentiating tumors grades. Findings related to λ and λ within tumor groups and between tumors and NAWM may be an indirect manifestation of the combined effects of axonal injury, demyelination, and tumor mass within the cranial compartment.

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Ellen L. Air, Weihong Yuan, Scott K. Holland, Blaise V. Jones, Karin Bierbrauer, Mekibib Altaye and Francesco T. Mangano

Object

The goal in this study was to compare the integrity of white matter before and after ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion by evaluating the anisotropic diffusion properties with the aid of diffusion tensor (DT) imaging in young children with hydrocephalus.

Methods

The authors retrospectively identified 10 children with hydrocephalus who underwent both pre- and postoperative DT imaging studies. The DT imaging parameters (fractional anisotropy [FA], mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity) were computed and compared longitudinally in the splenium and genu of the corpus callosum (gCC) and in the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule (PLIC). The patients' values on DT imaging at the pre- and postshunt stages were compared with the corresponding age-matched controls as well as with a large cohort of healthy children in the database.

Results

In the gCC, 7 of 10 children had abnormally low preoperative FA values, 6 of which normalized postoperatively. All 3 of the 10 children who had normal preoperative FA values had normal FA values postoperatively as well. In the PLIC, 7 of 10 children had abnormally high FA values, 6 of which normalized postoperatively, whereas the other one had abnormally low postoperative FA. Of the remaining 3 children, 2 had abnormally low preoperative FA values in the PLIC; this normalized in 1 patient after surgery. The other child had a normal preoperative FA value that became abnormally low postoperatively. When comparing the presurgery frequency of abnormally low, normal, and abnormally high FA values to those postsurgery, there was a statistically significant longitudinal difference in both gCC (p = 0.02) and PLIC (p = 0.002).

Conclusions

In this first longitudinal DT imaging study of young children with hydrocephalus, DT imaging anisotropy yielded abnormal results in several white matter regions of the brain, and trended toward normalization following VP shunt placement.

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Robert T. Buckley, Weihong Yuan, Francesco T. Mangano, Jannel M. Phillips, Stephanie Powell, Robert C. McKinstry, Akila Rajagopal, Blaise V. Jones, Scott Holland and David D. Limbrick Jr.

The authors report the case of a 25-month-old boy who underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) for hydrocephalus resulting from aqueductal stenosis. The patient's recovery was monitored longitudinally and prospectively using MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and formal neuropsychological testing. Despite minimal change in ventricle size, improvement in the DTI characteristics and neurodevelopmental trajectory was observed following ETV. These data support the use of DTI as a biomarker to assess therapeutic response in children undergoing surgical treatment for hydrocephalus. In the patient featured in this report, DTI appeared to provide more information regarding postoperative neurodevelopmental outcome than ventricle size alone.

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Dustin K. Ragan, Jonathon Cerqua, Tiffany Nash, Robert C. McKinstry, Joshua S. Shimony, Blaise V. Jones, Francesco T. Mangano, Scott K. Holland, Weihong Yuan and David D. Limbrick Jr.

Assessment of ventricular size is essential in clinical management of hydrocephalus and other neurological disorders. At present, ventricular size is assessed using indices derived from the dimensions of the ventricles rather than the actual volumes. In a population of 22 children with congenital hydrocephalus and 22 controls, the authors evaluated the relationship between ventricular volume and linear indices in common use, such as the frontooccipital horn ratio, Evans' index, and the bicaudate index. Ventricular volume was measured on high-resolution anatomical MR images. The frontooccipital horn ratio was found to have a stronger correlation with both absolute and relative ventricular volume than other indices. Further analysis of the brain volumes found that congenital hydrocephalus produced a negligible decrease in the volume of the brain parenchyma.

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Francesco T. Mangano, Mekibib Altaye, Robert C. McKinstry, Joshua S. Shimony, Stephanie K. Powell, Jannel M. Phillips, Holly Barnard, David D. Limbrick Jr., Scott K. Holland, Blaise V. Jones, Jonathan Dodd, Sarah Simpson, Deanna Mercer, Akila Rajagopal, Sarah Bidwell and Weihong Yuan

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to investigate white matter (WM) structural abnormalities using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in children with hydrocephalus before CSF diversionary surgery (including ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion and endoscopic third ventriculostomy) and during the course of recovery after surgery in association with neuropsychological and behavioral outcome.

METHODS

This prospective study included 54 pediatric patients with congenital hydrocephalus (21 female, 33 male; age range 0.03–194.5 months) who underwent surgery and 64 normal controls (30 female, 34 male; age range 0.30–197.75 months). DTI and neurodevelopmental outcome data were collected once in the control group and 3 times (preoperatively and at 3 and 12 months postoperatively) in the patients with hydrocephalus. DTI measures, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) values were extracted from the genu of the corpus callosum (gCC) and the posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC). Group analysis was performed first cross-sectionally to quantify DTI abnormalities at 3 time points by comparing the data obtained in the hydrocephalus group for each of the 3 time points to data obtained in the controls. Longitudinal comparisons were conducted pairwise between different time points in patients whose data were acquired at multiple time points. Neurodevelopmental data were collected and analyzed using the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition, and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition. Correlation analyses were performed between DTI and behavioral measures.

RESULTS

Significant DTI abnormalities were found in the hydrocephalus patients in both the gCC (lower FA and higher MD, AD, and RD) and the PLIC (higher FA, lower AD and RD) before surgery. The DTI measures in the gCC remained mostly abnormal at 3 and 12 months after surgery. The DTI abnormalities in the PLIC were significant in FA and AD at 3 months after surgery but did not persist when tested at 12 months after surgery. Significant longitudinal DTI changes in the patients with hydrocephalus were found in the gCC when findings at 3 and 12 months after surgery were compared. In the PLIC, trend-level longitudinal changes were observed between preoperative findings and 3-month postoperative findings, as well as between 3- and 12-month postoperative findings. Significant correlation between DTI and developmental outcome was found at all 3 time points. Notably, a significant correlation was found between DTI in the PLIC at 3 months after surgery and developmental outcome at 12 months after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

The data showed significant WM abnormality based on DTI in both the gCC and the PLIC in patients with congenital hydrocephalus before surgery, and the abnormalities persisted in both the gCC and the PLIC at 3 months after surgery. The DTI values remained significantly abnormal in the gCC at 12 months after surgery. Longitudinal analysis showed signs of recovery in both WM structures between different time points. Combined with the significant correlation found between DTI and neuropsychological measures, the findings of this study suggest that DTI can serve as a sensitive imaging biomarker for underlying neuroanatomical changes and postsurgical developmental outcome and even as a predictor for future outcomes.