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  • Author or Editor: Bhargav D. Desai x
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Sukhraaj Basati, Bhargav Desai, Ali Alaraj, Fady Charbel and Andreas Linninger


Experimental data about the evolution of intracranial volume and pressure in cases of hydrocephalus are limited due to the lack of available monitoring techniques. In this study, the authors validate intracranial CSF volume measurements within the lateral ventricle, while simultaneously using impedance sensors and pressure transducers in hydrocephalic animals.


A volume sensor was fabricated and connected to a catheter that was used as a shunt to withdraw CSF. In vitro bench-top calibration experiments were created to provide data for the animal experiments and to validate the sensors. To validate the measurement technique in a physiological system, hydrocephalus was induced in weanling rats by kaolin injection into the cisterna magna. At 28 days after induction, the sensor was implanted into the lateral ventricles. After sealing the skull using dental cement, an acute CSF drainage/infusion protocol consisting of 4 sequential phases was performed with a pump. Implant location was confirmed via radiography using intraventricular iohexol contrast administration.


Controlled CSF shunting in vivo with hydrocephalic rats resulted in precise and accurate sensor measurements (r = 0.98). Shunting resulted in a 17.3% maximum measurement error between measured volume and actual volume as assessed by a Bland-Altman plot. A secondary outcome confirmed that both ventricular volume and intracranial pressure decreased during CSF shunting and increased during infusion. Ventricular enlargement consistent with successful hydrocephalus induction was confirmed using imaging, as well as postmortem. These results indicate that volume monitoring is feasible for clinical cases of hydrocephalus.


This work marks a departure from traditional shunting systems currently used to treat hydrocephalus. The overall clinical application is to provide alternative monitoring and treatment options for patients. Future work includes development and testing of a chronic (long-term) volume monitoring system.

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Jesse J. McClure, Bhargav D. Desai, Leah M. Shabo, Thomas J. Buell, Chun-Po Yen, Justin S. Smith, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Mark E. Shaffrey and Avery L. Buchholz


Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a safe and effective intervention to treat cervical spine pathology. Although these were originally performed as single-level procedures, multilevel ACDF has been performed for patients with extensive degenerative disc disease. To date, there is a paucity of data regarding outcomes related to ACDFs of 3 or more levels. The purpose of this study was to compare surgical outcomes of 3- and 4-level ACDF procedures.


The authors performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent 3- and 4-level ACDF at the University of Virginia Health System between January 2010 and December 2017. In patients meeting the inclusion/exclusion criteria, demographics, fusion rates, time to fusion, and reoperation rates were evaluated. Fusion was determined by < 1 mm of change in interspinous distance between individual fused vertebrae on lateral flexion/extension radiographs and lack of radiolucency between the grafts and vertebral bodies. Any procedure requiring a surgical revision was considered a failure.


Sixty-six patients (47 with 3-level and 19 with 4-level ACDFs) met the inclusion/exclusion criteria of having at least one lateral flexion/extension radiograph series ≥ 12 months after surgery. Seventy percent of 3-level patients and 68% of 4-level patients had ≥ 24 months of follow-up. Ninety-four percent of 3-level patients and 100% of 4-level patients achieved radiographic fusion for at least 1 surgical level. Eighty-eight percent and 82% of 3- and 4-level patients achieved fusion at C3–4; 85% and 89% of 3- and 4-level patients achieved fusion at C4–5; 68% and 89% of 3- and 4-level patients achieved fusion at C5–6; 44% and 42% of 3- and 4-level patients achieved fusion at C6–7; and no patients achieved fusion at C7–T1. Time to fusion was not significantly different between levels. Revision was required in 6.4% of patients with 3-level and in 16% of patients with 4-level ACDF. The mean time to revision was 46.2 and 45.4 months for 3- and 4-level ACDF, respectively. The most common reason for revision was worsening of initial symptoms.


The authors’ experience with long-segment anterior cervical fusions shows their fusion rates exceeding most of the reported fusion rates for similar procedures in the literature, with rates similar to those reported for short-segment ACDFs. Three-level and 4-level ACDF procedures are viable options for cervical spine pathology, and the authors’ analysis demonstrates an equivalent rate of fusion and time to fusion between 3- and 4-level surgeries.

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Bhargav D. Desai, Davis G. Taylor, Ching-Jen Chen, Thomas J. Buell, Jeffrey P. Mullin, Bhiken I. Naik, Justin S. Smith and Christopher I. Shaffrey

Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent with demonstrated efficacy in reducing blood loss when administered systemically. However, in patients with contraindications to systemic or intravenous TXA, topical TXA (tTXA) has been shown to reduce perioperative blood loss, with some studies suggesting equivalence compared to systemic TXA. However, these studies have been conducted in healthy cohorts without contraindications to systemic TXA. In the surgical management of adult spinal deformity (ASD), comorbid disease is commonly encountered and may preclude use of systemic TXA. In this subset of patients with ASD who have contraindications for systemic TXA, use of tTXA has not been reported.

The primary objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the use of tTXA in spine surgery and to present the authors’ initial experience with tTXA as a novel hemostatic technique for 2 patients with medically complex ASD. Both patients had contraindications to systemic TXA use and underwent high-risk, long-segment fusion operations for correction of ASD. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used to obtain studies related to spine surgery and tTXA from the National Institutes of Health PubMed ( database. Criteria for final selection included a demonstration of quantitative data regarding operative or postoperative blood loss with the use of tTXA, and selection criteria were met by 6 articles.

Topical TXA may offer a potential therapeutic role in reducing intra- and postoperative blood loss following long-segment spinal fusion surgeries, particularly for medically complex patients with contraindications to systemic TXA. It is reasonable to consider the use of tTXA as a salvage technique in complex high-risk patients with contraindications to systemic TXA, although further research is needed to delineate safety, magnitude of benefit, and optimization of dosing.