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  • Author or Editor: Bharathi D. Jagadeesan x
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Josser E. Delgado Almandoz, Bharathi D. Jagadeesan, Daniel Refai, Christopher J. Moran, DeWitte T. Cross III, Michael R. Chicoine, Keith M. Rich, Michael N. Diringer, Ralph G. Dacey Jr., Colin P. Derdeyn and Gregory J. Zipfel

Object

The yield of CT angiography (CTA) and MR angiography (MRA) in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who have a negative initial catheter angiogram is currently not well understood. This study aims to determine the yield of CTA and MRA in a prospective cohort of patients with SAH and a negative initial catheter angiogram.

Methods

From January 1, 2005, until September 1, 2010, the authors instituted a prospective protocol in which patients with SAH—as documented by noncontrast CT or CSF xanthochromia and a negative initial catheter angiogram— were evaluated using CTA and MRA to assess for causative cerebral aneurysms. Two neuroradiologists independently evaluated the noncontrast CT scans to determine the SAH pattern (perimesencephalic or not) and the CT and MR angiograms to assess for causative cerebral aneurysms.

Results

Seventy-seven patients were included, with a mean age of 52.8 years (median 54 years, range 19–88 years). Fifty patients were female (64.9%) and 27 male (35.1%). Forty-three patients had nonperimesencephalic SAH (55.8%), 29 patients had perimesencephalic SAH (37.7%), and 5 patients had CSF xanthochromia (6.5%). Computed tomography angiography demonstrated a causative cerebral aneurysm in 4 patients (5.2% yield), all of whom had nonperimesencephalic SAH (9.3% yield). Mean aneurysm size was 2.6 mm (range 2.1–3.3 mm). Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated only 1 of these aneurysms. No causative cerebral aneurysms were found in patients with perimesencephalic SAH or CSF xanthochromia.

Conclusions

Computed tomography angiography is a valuable adjunct in the evaluation of patients with nonperimesencephalic SAH who have a negative initial catheter angiogram, demonstrating a causative cerebral aneurysm in 9.3% of patients.

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Bharathi D. Jagadeesan, Andrew W. Grande, Daniel J. Guillaume, David R. Nascene and Ramachandra P. Tummala

Dural sinus malformations (DSMs) are rare congenital malformations that can be midline or lateral in location. Midline DSMs have been reported to have a worse prognosis than lateral DSMs and have traditionally been more difficult to manage. The authors report 2 unusual manifestations of midline DSMs and their management with percutaneous transfontanelle embolization. The first patient (Case 1) presented at 21 days of life with a large midline DSM and multiple highflow dural and pial arteriovenous shunts. The child developed congestive cardiac failure and venous congestion with intracranial hemorrhage and seizures within a few weeks. The second patient (Case 2) presented with a large midline DSM found on prenatal imaging that was determined to be a purely venous malformation on postnatal evaluation. This large malformation resulted in consumptive coagulopathy and apneic episodes from brainstem compression. The patient in Case 1 was treated initially with endovascular embolization and eventually with curative percutaneous-transfontanelle embolization. The patient in Case 2 was treated with percutaneous transfontanelle embolization in combination with posterior fossa decompression and cranial expansion surgery.

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Bharathi D. Jagadeesan, Haralabos Zacharatos, David R. Nascene, Andrew W. Grande, Daniel J. Guillaume and Ramachandra P. Tummala

A 5-month-old infant was to be treated with elective transarterial embolization for a vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM). A team of endovascular surgical neuroradiologists, pediatric interventional radiologists, and pediatric cardiologists attempted conventional femoral arterial access, which was unsuccessful given the small caliber of the femoral arteries and superimposed severe vasospasm. Thereafter, eventual arterial access was achieved by navigating from the venous to the arterial system across the patent foramen ovale following a right femoral venous access. Embolization was then successfully performed. At a later date, the child underwent successful transvenous balloon-assisted embolization and eventual arterial embolization with cure of the VGAM.