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Sharad Rajpal, David B. Niemann, Beverly Aagaard-Kienitz and Aquilla S. Turk

✓ A case of cranial-based metastatic non-Hodgkin lymphoma with cerebral vascular compromise is presented. The patient underwent intracranial endovascular stent placement resulting in an improvement in his symptoms. This is the first reported case of endovascular stent placement for an intracranial neoplasm in the literature to date.

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Yiping Li, Jason Kim, Dustin Simpson, Beverly Aagaard-Kienitz, David Niemann, Ignatius N. Esene and Azam Ahmed


The literature suggests that blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) plays a significant role in the development of neurological events in patients with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) that is negative for lesions. In this prospective, single-center cohort study, the authors compared the imaging characteristics of patients suffering transient neurological events (TNEs) with those in patients suffering permanent neurological events (PNEs) after having undergone elective embolization of unruptured intracranial aneurysms.


This prospective cohort study was conducted between July 2016 and June 2019. Inclusion criteria were adults undergoing elective neuroendovascular procedures and the absence of contraindications to MRI. All subjects underwent brain MRI including postcontrast FLAIR (pcFLAIR) sequences for evaluation of BBBD within 24 hours postprocedure.


In total, 128 patients harboring 133 unruptured aneurysms were enrolled, 109 of whom (85.2%) showed some degree of BBBD on pcFLAIR MRI and 50 of whom (39.1%) suffered an ischemic insult per DWI. In total, 23 patients (18%) suffered neurological complications, 16 of which (12.5%) were TNEs and 7 of which (5.5%) were PNEs. The median extent of BBBD was focal in asymptomatic patients as compared to hemispheric and lobar in the TNE and PNE groups, respectively (p < 0.001). The American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification predicted the extent of BBBD (p = 0.046).

Lesions on DWI were noted in 34 asymptomatic patients (32.4%) compared to 9 patients (56.3%) with TNEs and all 7 patients (100%) with PNEs (p < 0.001). The median number of DWI lesions was 0 (range 0–18 lesions) in the asymptomatic group compared to 1.5 (range 0–8 lesions) and 8 (range 1–13 lesions) in the TNE and PNE groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Smoking (p = 0.008), older age (p = 0.002), and longer surgery (p = 0.006) were positively associated with the number of lesions on DWI.

On multivariate analysis, intraarterial verapamil (p = 0.02, OR 8.01, 95% CI 1.35–47.43) and extent of BBBD (p < 0.001, OR 58.58, 95% CI 9.48–361.84) were positively associated with the development of TNEs, while intravenous infusion of midazolam during surgery (p = 0.02, OR 6.03, 95% CI 1.29–28.20) was negatively associated. An increased number of lesions on DWI was the only significant predictor for the development of PNEs (p < 0.001, OR 49.85, 95% CI 5.56–447.10).


An increasing extent of BBBD was associated with the development of TNEs, whereas an increasing number of lesions on DWI was significantly associated with the development of PNEs. BBBD imaging using pcFLAIR may serve as a valuable biomarker for detecting subtle cerebral ischemia and stratifying the risk for ischemic events.

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Roham Moftakhar, Howard A. Rowley, Aquilla Turk, David B. Niemann, Beverly Aagaard Kienitz, Jamie Van Gomple and Mustafa K. Başkaya


Digital subtraction (DS) angiography is the gold standard for detecting cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Computed tomography (CT) perfusion is a recently developed modality for the evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of using CT perfusion to detect vasospasm in patients with SAH.


Fourteen patients between the ages of 41 and 66 years with aneurysmal SAH underwent 23 CT perfusion scans for suspected vasospasm. All patients underwent DS angiography within 12 hours of the CT perfusion scans. The presence of vasospasm on CT perfusion images was determined based on qualitative reading using color maps of mean transit time, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral blood volume as criteria. The presence or absence of vasospasm as retrospectively determined using CT perfusion was compared with DS angiography findings.

Of the 23 CT perfusion scans performed, 21 (91%) were concordant with angiography findings in predicting the presence or absence of vasospasm. In 15 of 23 scans, the presence of vasospasm was detected on CT perfusion scans and confirmed on DS angiography studies. In two cases, vasospasm was revealed on DS angiography but was not confirmed on CT perfusion. The degree of agreement between CT perfusion and DS angiography for detection of vasospasm was high (κ = 0.8, p < 0.0001).


Computed tomography perfusion is an accurate, reliable, and noninvasive method to detect the presence or absence of vasospasm. It can be used as a tool to help guide the decision to pursue DS angiography with the intent to treat vasospasm.

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Matthew F. Sanford, Aquilla S. Turk, David B. Niemann, Kari A. Pulfer and Beverly A. Aagaard-Kienitz

✓ The authors describe the novel use of cerebral perfusion computerized tomography studies to evaluate the effectiveness of internal carotid artery stent placement in a man with symptomatic transient ischemic attacks caused by tandem stenoses of the internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries.

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Nathaniel P. Brooks, Aquilla S. Turk, David B. Niemann, Beverly Aagaard-Kienitz, Kari Pulfer and Thomas Cook


There is little evidence addressing whether procedures requiring adjunctive devices lead to an increased frequency of thromboembolic complications. The authors report their experience with 155 aneurysms treated with and without adjunctive devices.


The authors retrospectively reviewed their last 155 aneurysm coil placement procedures. The patients' records were reviewed for the following phenomena: 1) evidence of procedure-related thrombus formation; 2) clinical evidence of stroke; and 3) the presence of acute ischemia in the treated vascular territory on diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging.


Of the 155 aneurysms treated in 132 patients, 66 were treated with coils only, 45 had stent-assisted coil placement, 33 underwent balloon remodeling, and in 11 stents were placed after balloon remodeling. Small DW imaging abnormalities were present in the treated vascular territory in 24% of cases (37 lesions). Specifically, 21 (32%) of 66 lesions in the coil-treated group, 6 (13%) of 45 in the stent-assisted coil treatment group, 8 (24%) of 33 in the balloon remodeling group, and 2 (18%) of 11 in the balloon and stent group showed DW imaging positivity. Furthermore, 25 (68%) of the 37 cases that were positive on DW imaging occurred in patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Clinically evident stroke or transient ischemic attack was present in 10 (27%) of 37 cases, with 70% occurring in patients presenting with SAH.


Use of adjunctive devices in treating aneurysms does not appear to increase the frequency of embolic or ischemic events. The presence of DW imaging abnormalities and clinically evident stroke was actually less frequent when adjunctive devices were used and in electively treated cases. This was probably related to perioperative antiplatelet medical management.

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Daniel Duran, Philipp Karschnia, Jonathan R. Gaillard, Jason K. Karimy, Mark W. Youngblood, Michael L. DiLuna, Charles C. Matouk, Beverly Aagaard-Kienitz, Edward R. Smith, Darren B. Orbach, Georges Rodesch, Alejandro Berenstein, Murat Gunel and Kristopher T. Kahle

Vein of Galen malformations (VOGMs) are rare developmental cerebrovascular lesions characterized by fistulas between the choroidal circulation and the median prosencephalic vein. Although the treatment of VOGMs has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical innovation in interventional neuroradiology, many patients are recalcitrant to procedural intervention or lack accessibility to specialized care centers, highlighting the need for improved screening, diagnostics, and therapeutics. A fundamental obstacle to identifying novel targets is the limited understanding of VOGM molecular pathophysiology, including its human genetics, and the lack of an adequate VOGM animal model. Herein, the known human mutations associated with VOGMs are reviewed to provide a framework for future gene discovery. Gene mutations have been identified in 2 Mendelian syndromes of which VOGM is an infrequent but associated phenotype: capillary malformation–arteriovenous malformation syndrome (RASA1) and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (ENG and ACVRL1). However, these mutations probably represent only a small fraction of all VOGM cases. Traditional genetic approaches have been limited in their ability to identify additional causative genes for VOGM because kindreds are rare, limited in patient number, and/or seem to have sporadic inheritance patterns, attributable in part to incomplete penetrance and phenotypic variability. The authors hypothesize that the apparent sporadic occurrence of VOGM may frequently be attributable to de novo mutation or incomplete penetrance of rare transmitted variants. Collaboration among treating physicians, patients’ families, and investigators using next-generation sequencing could lead to the discovery of novel genes for VOGM. This could improve the understanding of normal vascular biology, elucidate the pathogenesis of VOGM and possibly other more common arteriovenous malformation subtypes, and pave the way for advances in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with VOGM.