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James M. Wright, Alankrita Raghavan, Christina H. Wright, Berje Shammassian, Yifei Duan, Martha Sajatovic, and Warren R. Selman

OBJECTIVE

Informed consent, when performed appropriately, serves many roles beyond simply obtaining the prerequisite medicolegal paperwork to perform a surgery. Prior studies have suggested that patient understanding is poor when verbal communication is the sole means of education. Virtual reality platforms have proven effective in enhancing medical education. No studies exist that have demonstrated the utility of virtual reality–facilitated informed consent (VR-IC) in improving the physician-patient alliance. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of VR-IC among patients providing consent for surgery and the impact of this educational and information technology–based strategy on enhancing the physician-patient alliance, patient satisfaction, and resident-physician perception of the consent process.

METHODS

Prospective, single-site, pre- and postconsent surveys were administered to assess patient and resident perception of informed consent performed with the aid of VR-IC at a large tertiary academic medical center in the US. Participants were adult patients (n = 50) undergoing elective surgery for tumor resection and neurosurgical residents (n = 19) who obtained patient informed consent for these surgical procedures. Outcome measures included scores on the Patient-Doctor Relationship Questionnaire (PDRQ-9), the modified Satisfaction with Simulation Experience Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Patient pre- and postconsent data were recorded in real time using a secure online research data platform (REDCap).

RESULTS

A total of 48 patients and 2 family members provided consent using VR-IC and completed the surveys pre- and postconsent; 47.9% of patients were women. The mean patient age was 57.5 years. There was a statistically significant improvement from pre- to post–VR-IC consent in patient satisfaction scores. Measures of patient-physician alliance, trust, and understanding of their illness all increased. Among the 19 trainees, perceived comfort and preparedness with the informed consent process significantly improved.

CONCLUSIONS

VR-IC led to improved patient satisfaction, patient-physician alliance, and patient understanding of their illness as measured by the PDRQ-9. Using VR-IC contributed to residents’ increased comfort in the consent-gathering process and handling patient questions. In an era in which satisfaction scores are directly linked with hospital and service-line outcomes and reimbursement, positive results from VR-IC may augment physician and hospital satisfaction scores in addition to increasing measures of trust between physicians and patients.

Free access

James M. Wright, Alankrita Raghavan, Christina H. Wright, Berje Shammassian, Yifei Duan, Martha Sajatovic, and Warren R. Selman

OBJECTIVE

Informed consent, when performed appropriately, serves many roles beyond simply obtaining the prerequisite medicolegal paperwork to perform a surgery. Prior studies have suggested that patient understanding is poor when verbal communication is the sole means of education. Virtual reality platforms have proven effective in enhancing medical education. No studies exist that have demonstrated the utility of virtual reality–facilitated informed consent (VR-IC) in improving the physician-patient alliance. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of VR-IC among patients providing consent for surgery and the impact of this educational and information technology–based strategy on enhancing the physician-patient alliance, patient satisfaction, and resident-physician perception of the consent process.

METHODS

Prospective, single-site, pre- and postconsent surveys were administered to assess patient and resident perception of informed consent performed with the aid of VR-IC at a large tertiary academic medical center in the US. Participants were adult patients (n = 50) undergoing elective surgery for tumor resection and neurosurgical residents (n = 19) who obtained patient informed consent for these surgical procedures. Outcome measures included scores on the Patient-Doctor Relationship Questionnaire (PDRQ-9), the modified Satisfaction with Simulation Experience Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Patient pre- and postconsent data were recorded in real time using a secure online research data platform (REDCap).

RESULTS

A total of 48 patients and 2 family members provided consent using VR-IC and completed the surveys pre- and postconsent; 47.9% of patients were women. The mean patient age was 57.5 years. There was a statistically significant improvement from pre- to post–VR-IC consent in patient satisfaction scores. Measures of patient-physician alliance, trust, and understanding of their illness all increased. Among the 19 trainees, perceived comfort and preparedness with the informed consent process significantly improved.

CONCLUSIONS

VR-IC led to improved patient satisfaction, patient-physician alliance, and patient understanding of their illness as measured by the PDRQ-9. Using VR-IC contributed to residents’ increased comfort in the consent-gathering process and handling patient questions. In an era in which satisfaction scores are directly linked with hospital and service-line outcomes and reimbursement, positive results from VR-IC may augment physician and hospital satisfaction scores in addition to increasing measures of trust between physicians and patients.

Restricted access

Abhilasha P. Boruah, Tamia O. Potter, Berje H. Shammassian, Byron B. Hills, Michael W. Dingeldein, and Krystal L. Tomei

OBJECTIVE

Nonaccidental trauma (NAT) is one of the leading causes of serious injury and death among young children in the United States, with a high proportion of head injury. Numerous studies have demonstrated the safety of discharge of infants with isolated skull fractures (ISFs); however, these same studies have noted that those infants with suspected abuse should not be immediately discharged. The authors aimed to create a standardized protocol for evaluation of infants presenting with skull fractures to our regional level I pediatric trauma center to best identify children at risk.

METHODS

A protocol for evaluation of NAT was developed by our pediatric trauma committee, which consists of evaluation by neurosurgery, pediatric surgery, and ophthalmology, as well as the pediatric child protection team. Social work evaluations and a skeletal survey were also utilized. Patients presenting over a 2-year period, inclusive of all infants younger than 12 months at the time of presentation, were assessed. Factors at presentation, protocol compliance, and the results of the workup were evaluated to determine how to optimize identification of children at risk.

RESULTS

A total of 45 infants with a mean age at presentation of 5.05 months (SD 3.14 months) were included. The most common stated mechanism of injury was a fall (75.6%), followed by an unknown mechanism (22.2%). The most common presenting symptoms were swelling over the fracture site (25 patients, 55.6%), followed by vomiting (5 patients, 11.1%). For the entire population of patients with skull fractures, there was suspicion of NAT in 24 patients (53.3% of the cohort). Among the 30 patients with ISFs, there was suspicion of NAT in 13 patients (43.3% of the subgroup).

CONCLUSIONS

Infants presenting with skull fractures with intracranial findings and ISFs had a substantial rate of concern for the possibility of nonaccidental skull fracture. Although prior studies have demonstrated the relative safety of discharging infants with ISFs, it is critical to establish an appropriate standardized protocol to evaluate for infants at risk of abusive head trauma.