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Hitoshi Fukuda, Kosuke Hayashi, Takafumi Moriya, Satoru Nakashita, Benjamin W. Y. Lo and Sen Yamagata

OBJECT

Intrasylvian hematoma (ISH) is a subtype of intracranial hematoma caused by aneurysmal rupture and often presents with a poor initial neurological grade; it is not well studied. The aim of this study was to elucidate outcomes of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with ISH.

METHODS

Data for 97 patients with poor-grade SAH (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Grade IV or V) were retrospectively analyzed from a single-center, prospective, observational cohort database. Ultra-early surgical clipping, removal of hematoma, external decompression for brain swelling, and prevention of vasospasm by cisternal irrigation with milrinone were combined as an aggressive treatment. Characteristics and clinical courses of SAH with ISH were identified. The authors also evaluated any correlations between poor admission-grade SAH and ISH with good functional outcome.

RESULTS

Patients with poor admission-grade SAH and with ISH were more likely to have initial cerebral edema (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test), which significantly resolved overtime (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test). These patients had a better chance of functional survival (modified Rankin Scale scores of 1–3; OR 5.75; 95% CI 1.36–24.3; p = 0.017) at 6 months after hospital discharge, after adjustment for potential confounders such as younger age and better initial neurological grade by multivariable analysis.

CONCLUSIONS

ISH predicted good functional recovery from poor-grade aneurysmal SAH.

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Pasquale Scotti, Chantal Séguin, Benjamin W. Y. Lo, Elaine de Guise, Jean-Marc Troquet and Judith Marcoux

OBJECTIVE

Among the elderly, use of antithrombotics (ATs), antiplatelets (APs; aspirin, clopidogrel), and/or anticoagulants (ACs; warfarin, direct oral ACs [DOACs; dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban]) to prevent thromboembolic events must be carefully weighed against the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) with trauma. The goal of this study was to assess the risk of sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI), ICH, and poorer outcomes in relation to AT use among all patients 65 years or older presenting to a single institution with head trauma.

METHODS

Data were collected from all head trauma patients 65 years or older presenting to the authors’ supraregional tertiary trauma center over a 24-month period and included age, sex, injury mechanism, medical history, international normalized ratio, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, ICH presence and type, hospital admission, reversal therapy, surgery, discharge destination, Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) score at discharge, and mortality.

RESULTS

A total of 1365 head trauma patients 65 years or older were included; 724 were on AT therapy (413 on APs, 151 on ACs, 59 on DOACs, 48 on 2 APs, 38 on AP+AC, and 15 on AP+DOAC) and 641 were not. Among all head trauma patients, the risk of sustaining a TBI was associated with AP use after adjusting for covariates. Of the 731 TBI patients, those using ATs had higher rates of ICH (p <0.0001), functional dependency at discharge (GOSE score ≤ 4; p < 0.0001), and mortality (p < 0.0001). Elevated rates of ICH progression on follow-up CT scanning were observed in patients in the warfarin monotherapy (OR 5.30, p < 0.0001) and warfarin + AP (OR 6.15, p = 0.0011). Risk of mortality was not associated with single antiplatelet use but was notably high with 2 APs (OR 4.66, p = 0.0056), warfarin (OR 5.18, p = 0.0003), and DOAC use (OR 5.09, p = 0.0149).

CONCLUSIONS

Elderly trauma patients on ATs, especially combination therapy, are at elevated risk of ICH and poor outcomes compared with those not on AT therapy. While both AP and warfarin use alone and in combination were associated with significantly elevated odds of sustaining an ICH among TBI patients, only warfarin use was a predictor of hemorrhage progression on follow-up scans. The use of a single AP was not associated with mortality; however, the combination of both aspirin and clopidogrel was. Warfarin and DOAC users had comparable mortality rates; however, DOAC users had lower rates of ICH progression, and fewer survivors were functionally dependent at discharge than were warfarin users. DOACs are an overall safer alternative to warfarin for patients at high risk of falls.

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Blessing N. R. Jaja, Gustavo Saposnik, Rosane Nisenbaum, Benjamin W. Y. Lo, Tom A. Schweizer, Kevin E. Thorpe and R. Loch Macdonald

Object

The goal of this study was to determine racial/ethnic differences in inpatient mortality rates and the use of institutional postacute care following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the US.

Methods

A cross-sectional study of hospital discharges for SAH was conducted using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2005–2010. Discharges with a principal diagnosis of SAH were identified and abstracted using the appropriate ICD-9-CM diagnostic code. Racial/ethnic groups were defined as white, black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander (API), and American Indian. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed comparing racial/ethnic groups with respect to the primary outcome of risk of in-hospital mortality and the secondary outcome of likelihood of discharge to institutional care.

Results

During the study period, 31,631 discharges were related to SAH. Race/ethnicity was a significant predictor of death (p = 0.003) and discharge to institutional care (p ≤ 0.001). In the adjusted analysis, compared with white patients, API patients were at higher risk of death (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.13–1.59) and Hispanic patients were at lower risk of death (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72–0.97). The likelihood of discharge to institutional care was statistically similar between white, Hispanic, API, and Native American patients. Black patients were more likely to be discharged to institutional care compared with white patients (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.14–1.40), but were similar to white patients in the risk of death.

Conclusions

Significant racial/ethnic differences are present in the risk of inpatient mortality and discharge to institutional care among patients with SAH in the US. Outcome is likely to be poor among API patients and best among Hispanic patients compared with other groups.

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Benjamin W. Y. Lo, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, James T. Rutka, Andrew Jea, James M. Drake, Maria Lamberti-Pasculli, Peter B. Dirks and Lehana Thabane

Object

Cephaloceles represent primary axial mesodermal defects, occurring in 0.8–4 per 10,000 live births. Prior studies have reported posterior location, hydrocephalus, microcephaly, seizure, and presence of brain tissue as poor prognostic markers for neurological outcome. However, these studies were small and the results were analyzed using univariate tests. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential risk factors for the occurrence of developmental delay in patients with cephaloceles, using both univariate and multivariable regression techniques.

Methods

This is a retrospective cohort study of cephalocele cases treated at the Hospital for Sick Children between 1990 and 2006. Two independent investigators collected the data from the Hospital for Sick Children Encephalocele Database and hospital charts. Developmental assessments were made by general pediatricians and neuropsychologists. Both univariate analysis (α = 0.10) and multivariable logistic regression analysis (α = 0.05) were performed.

Results

Eighty-five cases of cephaloceles were identified. The patient group consisted of 48 boys and 37 girls. Sixty-eight lesions were encephaloceles and 17 were meningoceles. The distribution was as follows: frontal (40 lesions), occipital (33), and parietal (12). Associated conditions included hydrocephalus (23), seizure disorder (17), microcephaly (6), corpus callosal abnormalities (15), heterotopias (9), cerebral dysgenesis (11), and myelomeningocele (1). Evaluation of long-term development revealed that 41 patients (48%) had normal development, 9 (11%) had mild delay, 14 (16%) had moderate delay, and 21 (25%) had severe delay. Hydrocephalus, seizure disorder, microcephaly, presence of associated intracranial abnormalities, and presence of brain tissue were significantly associated with poor outcome on univariate analysis. Multivariable analysis revealed hydrocephalus and presence of intracranial abnormalities to be statistically significant predictors of developmental delay.

Conclusions

To the authors' knowledge, this is one of the largest North American cephalocele series documented. Unlike prior studies, location of the cephaloceles is not a significant predictor of outcome. The multivariable regression analysis demonstrates hydrocephalus and the presence of associated intracranial abnormalities as variables with cumulative predictive effects for developmental delay.