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Bernhard Schmidt, Marek Czosnyka, Jens Jürgen Schwarze, Dirk Sander, Werner Gerstner, Christianto Benjamin Lumenta and Jürgen Klingelhöfer

Object. A mathematical model previously introduced by the authors allowed noninvasive intracranial pressure (nICP) assessment. In the present study the authors investigated this model as an aid in predicting the time course of raised ICP during infusion tests in patients with hydrocephalus and its suitability for estimating the resistance to outflow of cerebrospinal fluid (Rcsf).

Methods. Twenty-one patients with hydrocephalus were studied. The nICP was calculated from the arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveform by using a linear signal transformation, which was dynamically modified by the relationship between ABP and cerebral blood flow velocity. This model was verified by comparison of nICP with “real” ICP measured during lumbar infusion tests. In all simulations, parallel increases in real ICP and nICP were evident. The simulated Rcsf was computed using nICP and then compared with Rcsf computed from real ICP. The mean absolute error between real and simulated Rcsf was 4.1 ± 2.2 mm Hg minute/ml. By the construction of simulations specific to different subtypes of hydrocephalus arising from various causes, the mean error decreased to 2.7 ± 1.7 mm Hg minute/ml, whereas the correlation between real and simulated Rcsf increased from R = 0.73 to R = 0.89 (p < 0.001).

Conclusions. The validity of the mathematical model was confirmed in this study. The creation of type-specific simulations resulted in substantial improvements in the accuracy of ICP assessment. Improvement strategies could be important because of a potential clinical benefit from this method.

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Alim P. Mitha, Benjamin Reichardt, Michael Grasruck, Eric Macklin, Soenke Bartling, Christianne Leidecker, Bernhard Schmidt, Thomas Flohr, Thomas J. Brady, Christopher S. Ogilvy and Rajiv Gupta


Imaging of intracranial aneurysms using conventional multidetector CT (MDCT) is limited because of nonvisualization of features such as perforating vessels, pulsatile blebs, and neck remnants after clip placement or coil embolization. In this study, a model of intracranial saccular aneurysms in rabbits was used to assess the ultra-high resolution and dynamic scanning capabilities of a prototype flat-panel volumetric CT (fpVCT) scanner in demonstrating these features.


Ten New Zealand white rabbits underwent imaging before and after clipping or coil embolization of surgically created aneurysms in the proximal right carotid artery. Imaging was performed using a prototype fpVCT scanner, a 64-slice MDCT scanner, and traditional catheter angiography. In addition to the slice data and 3D views, 4D dynamic views, a capability unique to fpVCT, were also created and reviewed. The images were subjectively compared on 1) 4 image quality metrics (spatial resolution, noise, motion artifacts, and aneurysm surface features); 2) 4 posttreatment features reflecting the metal artifact profile of the various imaging modalities (visualization of clip or coil placement, perianeurysmal clip/coil anatomy, neck remnant, and white-collar sign); and 3) 2 dynamic features (blood flow pattern and aneurysm pulsation).


Flat-panel volumetric CT provided better image resolution than MDCT and was comparable to traditional catheter angiography. The surface features of aneurysms were demonstrated with much higher resolution, detail, and clarity by fpVCT compared with MDCT and angiography. Flat-panel volumetric CT was inferior to both MDCT and angiography in terms of image noise and motion artifacts. In fpVCT images, the metallic artifacts from clips and coils were significantly fewer than those in MDCT images. As a result, clinically important information about posttreatment aneurysm neck remnants could be derived from fpVCT images but not from MDCT images. Time-resolved dynamic sequences were judged slightly inferior to conventional angiography but superior to static MDCT images.


The spatial resolution, surface anatomy visualization, metal artifact profile, and 4D dynamic images from fpVCT are superior to those from MDCT. Flat-panel volumetric CT demonstrates aneurysm surface features to better advantage than angiography and is comparable to angiography in metal artifact profile. Even though the temporal resolution of fpVCT is not quite as good as that of angiography, fpVCT images yield clinically important anatomical information about aneurysm surface features and posttreatment neck remnants not attainable with either angiography or MDCT images.

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010