Although endovascular therapy is favored for acutely ruptured intracranial aneurysms, hematological factors associated with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may predispose to procedure-related ischemic complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an elevated level of plasma D-dimer, a parameter of hypercoagulation in patients with acute SAH, is correlated with increased incidence of thromboembolic events during endovascular coiling of ruptured aneurysms.
The authors analyzed data from 103 cases of acutely ruptured aneurysms (in 103 patients) treated with endovascular coil embolization at a single institution. Factors associated with elevated D-dimer level on admission were identified. The authors also evaluated whether D-dimer elevation was independently correlated with increased incidence of perioperative thromboembolic events.
An elevated D-dimer concentration (≥ 1.0 μg/ml) on admission was observed in 70 (68.0%) of 103 patients. Increasing age (p < 0.001, Student t-test) and poor initial neurological grade representing World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade IV or V (p = 0.0018, chi-square test) were significantly associated with D-dimer elevation. Symptomatic thromboembolic events occurred in 11 cases (10.7%). Elevated D-dimer levels on admission (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.10–1.62, p = 0.0029) independently carried a higher risk of thromboembolic events after adjustment for potential angiographic confounders, including wide neck of the aneurysm and large aneurysm size.
Elevated D-dimer levels on admission of patients with acute SAH were significantly associated with increased incidence of thromboembolic events during endovascular coiling of ruptured aneurysms.