J. Harley Astin, Christopher G. Wilkerson, Andrew T. Dailey, Benjamin J. Ellis, and Douglas L. Brockmeyer
Instability of the craniocervical junction (CCJ) is a well-known finding in patients with Down syndrome (DS); however, the relative contributions of bony morphology versus ligamentous laxity responsible for abnormal CCJ motion are unknown. Using finite element modeling, the authors of this study attempted to quantify those relative differences.
Two CCJ finite element models were created for age-matched pediatric patients, a patient with DS and a control without DS. Soft tissues and ligamentous structures were added based on bony landmarks from the CT scans. Ligament stiffness values were assigned using published adult ligament stiffness properties. Range of motion (ROM) testing determined that model behavior most closely matched pediatric cadaveric data when ligament stiffness values were scaled down to 25% of those found in adults. These values, along with those assigned to the other soft-tissue materials, were identical for each model to ensure that the only variable between the two was the bone morphology. The finite element models were then subjected to three types of simulations to assess ROM, anterior-posterior (AP) translation displacement, and axial tension.
The DS model exhibited more laxity than the normal model at all levels for all of the cardinal ROMs and AP translation. For the CCJ, the flexion-extension, lateral bending, axial rotation, and AP translation values predicted by the DS model were 40.7%, 52.1%, 26.1%, and 39.8% higher, respectively, than those for the normal model. When simulating axial tension, the soft-tissue structural stiffness values predicted by the DS and normal models were nearly identical.
The increased laxity exhibited by the DS model in the cardinal ROMs and AP translation, along with the nearly identical soft-tissue structural stiffness values exhibited in axial tension, calls into question the previously held notion that ligamentous laxity is the sole explanation for craniocervical instability in DS.
Rinchen Phuntsok, Marcus D. Mazur, Benjamin J. Ellis, Vijay M. Ravindra, and Douglas L. Brockmeyer
There is a significant deficiency in understanding the biomechanics of the pediatric craniocervical junction (CCJ) (occiput–C2), primarily because of a lack of human pediatric cadaveric tissue and the relatively small number of treated patients. To overcome this deficiency, a finite element model (FEM) of the pediatric CCJ was created using pediatric geometry and parameterized adult material properties. The model was evaluated under the physiological range of motion (ROM) for flexion-extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending and under tensile loading.
This research utilizes the FEM method, which is a numerical solution technique for discretizing and analyzing systems. The FEM method has been widely used in the field of biomechanics. A CT scan of a 13-month-old female patient was used to create the 3D geometry and surfaces of the FEM model, and an open-source FEM software suite was used to apply the material properties and boundary and loading conditions and analyze the model. The published adult ligament properties were reduced to 50%, 25%, and 10% of the original stiffness in various iterations of the model, and the resulting ROMs for flexion-extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending were compared. The flexion-extension ROMs and tensile stiffness that were predicted by the model were evaluated using previously published experimental measurements from pediatric cadaveric tissues.
The model predicted a ROM within 1 standard deviation of the published pediatric ROM data for flexion-extension at 10% of adult ligament stiffness. The model's response in terms of axial tension also coincided well with published experimental tension characterization data. The model behaved relatively stiffer in extension than in flexion. The axial rotation and lateral bending results showed symmetric ROM, but there are currently no published pediatric experimental data available for comparison. The model predicts a relatively stiffer ROM in both axial rotation and lateral bending in comparison with flexion-extension. As expected, the flexion-extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending ROMs increased with the decrease in ligament stiffness.
An FEM of the pediatric CCJ was created that accurately predicts flexion-extension ROM and axial force displacement of occiput–C2 when the ligament material properties are reduced to 10% of the published adult ligament properties. This model gives a reasonable prediction of pediatric cervical spine ligament stiffness, the relationship between flexion-extension ROM, and ligament stiffness at the CCJ. The creation of this model using open-source software means that other researchers will be able to use the model as a starting point for research.
Rinchen Phuntsok, Chase W. Provost, Andrew T. Dailey, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, and Benjamin J. Ellis
Prior studies have provided conflicting evidence regarding the contribution of key ligamentous structures to atlantoaxial (AA) joint stability. Many of these studies employed cadaveric techniques that are hampered by the inherent difficulties of testing isolated-injury scenarios. Analysis with validated finite element (FE) models can overcome some of these limitations. In a previous study, the authors completed an FE analysis of 5 subject-specific craniocervical junction (CCJ) models to investigate the biomechanics of the occipitoatlantal joint and identify the ligamentous structures essential for its stability. Here, the authors use these same CCJ FE models to investigate the biomechanics of the AA joint and to identify the ligamentous structures essential for its stability.
Five validated CCJ FE models were used to simulate isolated- and combined ligamentous–injury scenarios of the transverse ligament (TL), tectorial membrane (TM), alar ligament (AL), occipitoatlantal capsular ligament, and AA capsular ligament (AACL). All models were tested with rotational moments (flexion-extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending) and anterior translational loads (C2 constrained with anterior load applied to the occiput) to simulate physiological loading and to assess changes in the atlantodental interval (ADI), a key radiographic indicator of instability.
Isolated AACL injury significantly increased range of motion (ROM) under rotational moment at the AA joint for flexion, lateral bending, and axial rotation, which increased by means of 28.0% ± 10.2%, 43.2% ± 15.4%, and 159.1% ± 35.1%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05 for all). TL removal simulated under translational loads resulted in a significant increase in displacement at the AA joint by 89.3% ± 36.6% (p < 0.001), increasing the ADI from 2.7 mm to 4.5 mm. An AACL injury combined with an injury to any other ligament resulted in significant increases in ROM at the AA joint, except when combined with injuries to both the TM and the ALs. Similarly, injury to the TL combined with injury to any other CCJ ligament resulted in a significant increase in displacement at the AA joint (significantly increasing ADI) under translational loads.
Using FE modeling techniques, the authors showed a significant reliance of isolated- and combined ligamentous–injury scenarios on the AACLs and TL to restrain motion at the AA joint. Isolated injuries to other structures alone, including the AL and TM, did not result in significant increases in either AA joint ROM or anterior displacement.
Rinchen Phuntsok, Benjamin J. Ellis, Michael R. Herron, Chase W. Provost, Andrew T. Dailey, and Douglas L. Brockmeyer
There is contradictory evidence regarding the relative contribution of the key stabilizing ligaments of the occipitoatlantal (OA) joint. Cadaveric studies are limited by the nature and the number of injury scenarios that can be tested to identify OA stabilizing ligaments. Finite element (FE) analysis can overcome these limitations and provide valuable data in this area. The authors completed an FE analysis of 5 subject-specific craniocervical junction (CCJ) models to investigate the biomechanics of the OA joint and identify the ligamentous structures essential for stability.
Isolated and combined injury scenarios were simulated under physiological loads for 5 validated CCJ FE models to assess the relative role of key ligamentous structures on OA joint stability. Each model was tested in flexion-extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending in various injury scenarios. Isolated ligamentous injury scenarios consisted of either decreasing the stiffness of the OA capsular ligaments (OACLs) or completely removing the transverse ligament (TL), tectorial membrane (TM), or alar ligaments (ALs). Combination scenarios were also evaluated.
An isolated OACL injury resulted in the largest percentage increase in all ranges of motion (ROMs) at the OA joint compared with the other isolated injuries. Flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation significantly increased by 12.4% ± 7.4%, 11.1% ± 10.3%, 83.6% ± 14.4%, and 81.9% ± 9.4%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05 for all). Among combination injuries, OACL+TM+TL injury resulted in the most consistent significant increases in ROM for both the OA joint and the CCJ during all loading scenarios. OACL+AL injury caused the most significant percentage increase for OA joint axial rotation.
These results demonstrate that the OACLs are the key stabilizing ligamentous structures of the OA joint. Injury of these primary stabilizing ligaments is necessary to cause OA instability. Isolated injuries of TL, TM, or AL are unlikely to result in appreciable instability at the OA joint.