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Hua Zhou, Shanshan Liu, Zhehuang Li, Xiaoguang Liu, Lei Dang, Yan Li, Zihe Li, Panpan Hu, Ben Wang, Feng Wei, and Zhongjun Liu


A 3D-printed vertebral prosthesis can be used to reconstruct a bone defect more precisely because of its tailored shape, with its innermost porous structure inducing bone ingrowth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of using a 3D-printed artificial vertebral body for spinal reconstruction after en bloc resection of thoracolumbar tumors.


This was a retrospective analysis of 23 consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment for thoracolumbar tumors at our hospital. En bloc resection was performed in all cases, based on the Weinstein-Boriani-Biagini surgical staging system, and anterior reconstruction was performed using a 3D-printed artificial vertebral body. Prosthesis subsidence, fusion status, and instrumentation-related complications were evaluated. Stability of the anterior reconstruction method was evaluated by CT, and CT Hounsfield unit (HU) values were measured to evaluate fusion status.


The median follow-up was 37 (range 24–58) months. A customized 3D-printed artificial vertebral body was used in 10 patients, with an off-the-shelf 3D-printed artificial vertebral body used in the other 13 patients. The artificial vertebral body was implanted anteriorly in 5 patients and posteriorly in 18 patients. The overall fusion rate was 87.0%. The average prosthesis subsidence at the final follow-up was 1.60 ± 1.79 mm. Instrument failure occurred in 2 patients, both of whom had substantial subsidence (8.47 and 3.69 mm, respectively). At 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively, the mean CT HU values within the artificial vertebral body were 1930 ± 294, 1997 ± 336, and 1994 ± 257, respectively, with each of these values being significantly higher than the immediate postoperative value of 1744 ± 321 (p < 0.05).


The use of a 3D-printed artificial vertebral body for anterior reconstruction after en bloc resection of the thoracolumbar spinal tumor may be a feasible and reliable option. The low incidence of prosthesis subsidence of 3D-printed endoprostheses can provide good stability instantly. Measurement of HU values with CT is a valuable method to evaluate the osseointegration at the bone-metal interface of a 3D-printed vertebral prosthesis.

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Seung-Hwan Yoon, Masashi Miyazaki, Soon-Woo Hong, Ben Tow, Yuichiro Morishita, Ming Hu, Sung-Joon Ahn, and Jeffrey C. Wang


Appropriate animal models of disc degeneration are critical for the study of proposed interventions as well as to further delineate the degenerative process. The purpose of this study was to characterize a porcine model for disc degeneration confirmed on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies and histological analysis.


Twelve miniature pigs were used (weight 48–65 kg) to study degeneration in the lumbar spine. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the disc was percutaneously punctured with a 3.2-mm-diameter trephine to a 5-mm depth into the annulus fibrosus. Control and experimental levels were randomized among 6 levels in the lumbar spine. The unlesioned spinal levels were used as controls and were compared with lesioned levels. Magnetic resonance imaging grading and disc height were serially recorded preoperatively, and at 5, 8, 19, 32, and 39 weeks postoperatively. The animals were killed in groups of 3 at 7, 18, 32, and 41 weeks postinjury, and the discs were examined histopathologically.


Consistent, sequential, and progressive degeneration of the annular injury was observed on MR imaging and histopathological studies from the time of injury to the final time point. The disc height and the disc height index also sequentially decreased from the time of the injury in a consistent manner. The uninjured control levels did not show any progressive degeneration and maintained their normal state.


Based on MR imaging and histopathological findings, the authors demonstrated and characterized a reliable model of sequential disc degeneration in miniature pigs with percutaneous injury to the annulus fibrosus. In the early stages, as soon as 5 weeks after injury, significant disc degeneration was seen on MR imaging grading with decreases in disc height. This degeneration did not improve by the final time point of 39 weeks.

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Lennart Riemann, Daphne C. Voormolen, Katrin Rauen, Klaus Zweckberger, Andreas Unterberg, Alexander Younsi, and the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) Investigators and Participants


The aim of this paper was to evaluate the prevalence of postconcussive symptoms and their relation to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric and adolescent patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) who received head CT imaging during initial assessment.


Patients aged between 5 and 21 years with mTBI (Glasgow Coma Scale scores 13–15) and available Rivermead Post Concussion Questionnaire (RPQ) at 6 months of follow-up in the multicenter, prospectively collected CENTER-TBI (Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in TBI) study were included. The prevalence of postconcussive symptoms was assessed, and the occurrence of postconcussive syndrome (PSC) based on the ICD-10 criteria, was analyzed. HRQOL was compared in patients with and without PCS using the Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) questionnaire.


A total of 196 adolescent or pediatric mTBI patients requiring head CT imaging were included. High-energy trauma was prevalent in more than half of cases (54%), abnormalities on head CT scans were detected in 41%, and admission to the regular ward or intensive care unit was necessary in 78%. Six months postinjury, 36% of included patients had experienced at least one moderate or severe symptom on the RPQ. PCS was present in 13% of adolescents and children when considering symptoms of at least moderate severity, and those patients had significantly lower QOLIBRI total scores, indicating lower HRQOL, compared with young patients without PCS (57 vs 83 points, p < 0.001).


Adolescent and pediatric mTBI patients requiring head CT imaging show signs of increased trauma severity. Postconcussive symptoms are present in up to one-third of those patients, and PCS can be diagnosed in 13% 6 months after injury. Moreover, PCS is significantly associated with decreased HRQOL.

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010