During the last decade, improvements in real-time, high-resolution imaging of surgically exposed cerebral vasculature have been realized with the successful introduction of intraoperative indocyanine green video angiography (ICGVA) and technical advances in intraoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA). With the availability of 3D intraoperative DSA (3D-iDSA) in hybrid operating rooms, the present study offers a contemporary comparison for rates of accuracy and discordance.
In this retrospective study of prospectively collected data, 140 consecutive patients underwent microsurgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) in a hybrid operating room. Variables analyzed included patient demographics, aneurysm-specific characteristics, intraoperative ICGVA and 3D-iDSA findings, and the need for intraoperative clip readjustment. The authors defined the discordance rate of the two modalities as a false-negative finding that necessitated clip repositioning after 3D-iDSA.
In 120 patients, ICGVA and 3D-iDSA were used to evaluate 134 IA obliterations. Of 215 clips used, 29 (14%) were repositioned intraoperatively, improving the surgical result in all 29 patients (24%). Repositioning was prompted by visual inspection and microvascular Doppler ultrasonography in 8 (28%), ICGVA in 13 (45%), and 3D-iDSA in 7 (24%) patients. Clip repositioning was needed in 7 patients (6%) based on 3D-iDSA, yielding an ICGVA accuracy rate of 94%. Five (71%) of the ICGVA–3D-iDSA discordances that prompted clip repositioning occurred at the anterior communicating artery complex.
A combination of vascular monitoring techniques most often achieved correct intraoperative interpretation of complete IA occlusion and parent artery integrity. Compared with 3D-iDSA imaging, ICGVA demonstrated high accuracy. Despite the relatively low discordance rate, iDSA was confirmed to be the gold standard. Improved imaging quality, including 3D-iDSA, supports its routine use in IA surgery, obviating the need for postoperative DSA.