Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating neurological injury associated with significant patient morbidity and death. Since the first demonstration of cerebral vasospasm nearly 60 years ago, the preponderance of research has focused on strategies to limit arterial narrowing and delayed cerebral ischemia following SAH. However, recent clinical and preclinical data indicate a functional dissociation between cerebral vasospasm and neurological outcome, signaling the need for a paradigm shift in the study of brain injury following SAH. Early brain injury may contribute to poor outcome and early death following SAH. However, elucidation of the complex cellular mechanisms underlying early brain injury remains a major challenge. The advent of modern neuroproteomics has rapidly advanced scientific discovery by allowing proteome-wide screening in an objective, nonbiased manner, providing novel mechanisms of brain physiology and injury. In the context of neurosurgery, proteomic analysis of patient-derived CSF will permit the identification of biomarkers and/or novel drug targets that may not be intuitively linked with any particular disease. In the present report, the authors discuss the utility of neuroproteomics with a focus on the roles for this technology in understanding SAH. The authors also provide data from our laboratory that identifies high-mobility group box protein-1 as a potential biomarker of neurological outcome following SAH in humans.