Roy R. Pigge, Famke J. Scheerder, Theo H. Smit, Margriet G. Mullender and Barend J. Van Royen
The object of this study was to assess the effectiveness of preoperative planning in the restoration of balance and view angle in patients treated with lumbar osteotomy in ankylosing spondylitis (AS).
The authors prospectively analyzed 8 patients with a thoracolumbar kyphotic deformity due to AS that was treated using a closing wedge osteotomy (CWO) of the lumbar spine to correct sagittal imbalance and horizontal view. Preoperative planning to predict postoperative balance, defined by the sagittal vertical axis (SVA) and the sacral endplate angle (SEA), and the view angle, defined by the chin-brow to vertical angle (CBVA), was performed using the ASKyphoplan computational program.
All patients were treated with a CWO at level L-4 and improved in balance and view angle. The mean correction angle was 35° (range 24–47°). The postoperative SEA improved from 21 to 36° for a mean correction of 15°. In addition, the SVA and CBVA improved significantly. Note, however, that the postoperative results did not exactly reflect the predicted values of the analyzed parameters.
Preoperative planning for the restoration of balance and view angle in AS improves understanding of the biomechanical and clinical effects of a correction osteotomy of the lumbar spine. The adaptation of basic clinical and biomechanical principles to restore balance is advised in such a way that the individual SEA is corrected by 15° (maximum 40°) in relation to the horizon and C-7 is balanced exactly above the posterosuperior corner of the sacrum.
Christine M. E. Rustenburg, Sayf S. A. Faraj, Roderick M. Holewijn, Idsart Kingma, Barend J. van Royen, Agnita Stadhouder and Kaj S. Emanuel
Degenerative lumbar scoliosis, or de novo degenerative lumbar scoliosis, can result in spinal canal stenosis, which is often accompanied by disabling symptoms. When surgically treated, a single-level laminectomy is performed and short-segment posterior instrumentation is placed to restore stability. However, the effects of laminectomy on spinal stability and the necessity of placing posterior instrumentation are unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stability of lumbar spines with degenerative scoliosis, characterized by the range of motion (ROM) and neutral zone (NZ) stiffness, after laminectomy and placement of posterior instrumentation.
Ten lumbar cadaveric spines (T12–L5) with a Cobb angle ≥ 10° and an apex on L3 were included. Three loading cycles were applied per direction, from −4 Nm to 4 Nm in flexion/extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR). Biomechanical evaluation was performed on the native spines and after subsequent L3 laminectomy and the placement of posterior L2–4 titanium rods and pedicle screws. Nonparametric and parametric tests were used to analyze the effects of laminectomy and posterior instrumentation on NZ stiffness and ROM, respectively, both on an individual segment’s motion and on the entire spine section. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used to study the correlation between disc degeneration and spinal stability.
The laminectomy increased ROM by 9.5% in FE (p = 0.04) and 4.6% in LB (p = 0.01). For NZ stiffness, the laminectomy produced no significant effects. Posterior instrumentation resulted in a decrease in ROM in all loading directions (−22.2%, −24.4%, and −17.6% for FE, LB, and AR, respectively; all p < 0.05) and an increase in NZ stiffness (+44.7%, +51.7%, and +35.2% for FE, LB, and AR, respectively; all p < 0.05). The same changes were seen in the individual segments around the apex, while the adjacent, untreated segments were mostly unaffected. Intervertebral disc degeneration was found to be positively correlated to decreased ROM and increased NZ stiffness.
Laminectomy in lumbar spines with degenerative scoliosis did not result in severe spinal instability, whereas posterior instrumentation resulted in a rigid construct. Also, prior to surgery, the spines already had lower ROM and higher NZ stiffness in comparison to values shown in earlier studies on nonscoliotic spines of the same age. Hence, the authors question the clinical need for posterior instrumentation to avoid instability.