The most common surgical procedure for the mesial temporal lobe is the standard anterior temporal resection or what is commonly called the anterior temporal lobectomy. There are, however, a number of other more selective procedures for removal of the mesial temporal lobe structures (amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus) that spare much of the lateral temporal neocortex. Included in these procedures collectively referred to as selective amygdalohippocampectomy are the transsylvian, subtemporal, and transcortical (trans-middle temporal gyrus) selective amygdalohippocampectomy. In this manuscript the author reviews some of the surgical details of the trans-middle temporal gyrus approach to the mesial temporal structures.
Cameron A. Elliott, Andrew Broad, Karl Narvacan, Trevor A. Steve, Thomas Snyder, Jordan Urlacher, B. Matt Wheatley and D. Barry Sinclair
The aim of this study was to investigate long-term seizure outcome, rate of reoperation, and postoperative neuropsychological performance following selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH) or anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in pediatric patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).
The authors performed a retrospective review of cases of medically refractory pediatric TLE treated initially with either SelAH or ATL. Standardized pre- and postoperative evaluation included seizure charting, surface and long-term video-electroencephalography, 1.5-T MRI, and neuropsychological testing.
A total of 79 patients treated initially with SelAH (n = 18) or ATL (n = 61) were included in this study, with a mean follow-up of 5.3 ± 4 years (range 1–16 years). The patients’ average age at initial surgery was 10.6 ± 5 years, with an average surgical delay of 5.7 ± 4 years between seizure onset and surgery. Seizure freedom (Engel I) following the initial operation was significantly more likely following ATL (47/61, 77%) than SelAH (8/18, 44%; p = 0.017, Fisher’s exact test). There was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of patients with postoperative neuropsychological deficits following SelAH (8/18, 44%) or ATL (21/61, 34%). However, reoperation was significantly more likely following SelAH (8/18, 44%) than after ATL (7/61, 11%; p = 0.004) and was more likely to result in Engel I outcome for ATL after failed SelAH (7/8, 88%) than for posterior extension after failed ATL (1/7, 14%; p = 0.01). Reoperation was well tolerated without significant neuropsychological deterioration. Ultimately, including 15 reoperations, 58 of 79 (73%) patients were free from disabling seizures at the most recent follow-up.
SelAH among pediatric patients with medically refractory unilateral TLE yields significantly worse rates of seizure control compared with ATL. Reoperation is significantly more likely following SelAH, is not associated with incremental neuropsychological deterioration, and frequently results in freedom from disabling seizures. These results are significant in that they argue against using SelAH for pediatric TLE surgery.
Cameron A. Elliott, Hayden Danyluk, Keith E. Aronyk, Karolyn Au, B. Matt Wheatley, Donald W. Gross, Tejas Sankar and Christian Beaulieu
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography is commonly used in neurosurgical practice but is largely limited to the preoperative setting. This is due primarily to image degradation caused by susceptibility artifact when conventional single-shot (SS) echo-planar imaging (EPI) DTI (SS-DTI) is acquired for open cranial, surgical position intraoperative DTI (iDTI). Readout-segmented (RS) EPI DTI (RS-DTI) has been reported to reduce such artifact but has not yet been evaluated in the intraoperative MRI (iMRI) environment. The authors evaluated the performance of RS versus SS EPI for DTI of the human brain in the iMRI setting.
Pre- and intraoperative 3-T 3D T1-weighted and 2D multislice RS-iDTI (called RESOLVE [readout segmentation of long variable echo-trains] on the Siemens platform) and SS-iDTI images were acquired in 22 adult patients undergoing intraaxial iMRI resections for suspected low-grade glioma (14; 64%), high-grade glioma (7; 32%), or focal cortical dysplasia. Regional susceptibility artifact, anatomical deviation relative to T1-weighted imaging, and tractographic output for surgically relevant tracts were compared between iDTI sequences as well as the intraoperative tract shifts from preoperative DTI.
RS-iDTI resulted in qualitatively less regional susceptibility artifact (resection cavity, orbitofrontal and anterior temporal cortices) and mean anatomical deviation in regions most prone to susceptibility artifact (RS-iDTI 2.7 ± 0.2 vs SS-iDTI 7.5 ± 0.4 mm) compared to SS-iDTI. Although tract reconstruction success did not significantly differ by DTI method, susceptibility artifact–related tractography failure (of at least 1 surgically relevant tract) occurred for SS-iDTI in 8/22 (36%) patients, and in 5 of these 8 patients RS-iDTI permitted successful reconstruction. Among cases with successful tractography for both sequences, maximal intersequence differences were substantial (mean 9.5 ± 5.7 mm, range −27.1 to 18.7 mm).
RS EPI enables higher quality and more accurate DTI for surgically relevant tractography of major white matter tracts in intraoperative, open cranium neurosurgical applications at 3 T.