Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 9 of 9 items for

  • Author or Editor: B. Indira Devi x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

Dhananjaya I. Bhat, B. Indira Devi, Komal Bharti and Rajanikant Panda

OBJECTIVE

The authors aimed to understand the alterations of brain resting-state networks (RSNs) in patients with pan–brachial plexus injury (BPI) before and after surgery, which might provide insight into cortical plasticity after peripheral nerve injury and regeneration.

METHODS

Thirty-five patients with left pan-BPI before surgery, 30 patients after surgery, and 25 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). The 30 postoperative patients were subdivided into 2 groups: 14 patients with improvement in muscle power and 16 patients with no improvement in muscle power after surgery. RSNs were extracted using independent component analysis to evaluate connectivity at a significance level of p < 0.05 (familywise error corrected).

RESULTS

The patients with BPI had lower connectivity in their sensorimotor network (SMN) and salience network (SN) and greater connectivity in their default mode network (DMN) before surgery than the controls. Connectivity of the left supplementary motor cortex in the SMN and medial frontal gyrus and in the anterior cingulate cortex in the SN increased in patients whose muscle power had improved after surgery, whereas no significant changes were noted in the unimproved patients. There was a trend toward reduction in DMN connectivity in all the patients after surgery compared with that in the preoperative patients; however, this result was not statistically significant.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study highlight the fact that peripheral nerve injury, its management, and successful treatment cause dynamic changes within the brain's RSNs, which includes not only the obvious SMN but also the higher cognitive networks such as the SN and DMN, which indicates brain plasticity and compensatory mechanisms at work.

Restricted access

Umesh Srikantha, Indira Devi Bhagavatula, Satish Satyanarayana, Sampath Somanna and Bengaluru A. Chandramouli

✓Osteochondromas are the most common benign bone tumor. Although the metaphysial region of long bones is the usual site of these tumors, the vertebrae may be infrequently affected. The presentation may vary from typical compressive myelopathy to radiculopathy or radiculomyelopathy, depending on the site of involvement. The authors present 3 consecutive cases of cervical spine osteochondromas encountered over 3 years at their institution, each different in its site of involvement, presentation, and chosen treatment. The patient in Case 1 had the typical presentation and lesion site, and was treated with a conventional laminectomy. The patient in Case 2 presented with an extensive disease that required complex, staged surgery with spinal fusion and instrumentation. The patient in Case 3 presented with monoradiculopathy and had a facet joint osteochondroma that was successfully treated with a simple partial facetectomy, without laminectomy.

Free access

Harsh Deora, Dwarakanath Srinivas, Dhaval Shukla, B. Indira Devi, Ajit Mishra, Manish Beniwal, Narasinga Rao Kannepalli and Sampath Somanna

OBJECTIVE

Multiple-site neural tube defects (MNTDs) are very uncommon, with the predominant number of cases being reported in developing countries. The classic theory of neural tube closure fails to explain the occurrence of these defects. Multisite closure theory, first proposed in 1995, explains most of the occurrences with a few modifications specific to a few defects. In this paper, the authors endeavor to explain all the defects, along with their genetic and embryological bases, and to review the available literature and discuss their own experience in the management of these complex cases.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the data of all the patients treated surgically for MNTDs over that past 14 years. All possible demographic data, clinical details, and radiological imaging data were reviewed. In addition, surgical parameters, complications, and status at follow-up of more than 12 months were evaluated. All previously reported cases of MNTD were analyzed, and comparisons with the present series were made.

RESULTS

A total of 3 major series (including the present one) on MNTDs have been from India. A total of 57 such cases (including those of the present series) have been reported in the available literature. While previous series reported a higher incidence of spinal defects, the present series had a higher rate of cephalic defects (55%). Among the reported cases, insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was necessary in 12 (26%), and only 4 patients were operated on in 2 stages. Neurological status at presentation dictated outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

MNTDs are extremely rare, and their embryogenesis is different from that of single neural tube defects. Simultaneous repair of 2 or even 3 defects is possible in a single-stage surgery. The requirement of a shunt is uncommon, and complications following surgery are rare. Folic acid supplementation may reduce the incidence of defects.

Full access

Shriram Varadharajan, Arvinda Hanumanthapura Ramalingaiah, Jitender Saini, Arun Kumar Gupta, B. Indira Devi and Ullas V. Acharya

Precipitating hydrophobic injectable liquid (PHIL) is a newly available liquid embolic agent for endovascular therapy. It is nonadhesive and composed of a biocompatible polymer dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide solvent and bonded covalently with iodine.

In this report, the authors present their preliminary experience using PHIL in the treatment of intracranial vascular shunts. Between July 2015 and December 2015, 11 patients underwent endovascular embolization using the PHIL embolic agent. Five patients had arteriovenous malformations, 4 had dural arteriovenous fistulas, 1 patient had a carotid-cavernous fistula, and 1 patient had a pial arteriovenous fistula. Clinical features, angioarchitectural characteristics, procedural details, and periprocedural complications were included in the analysis.

Complete or near-complete obliteration of the nidus or fistulas was achieved in 8 of these patients. Partial embolization (approximately 80% in 2 and 30% in 1) was attained in the other 3 patients. Satisfactory venous penetration after nidal embolization was achieved in all patients. In 1 patient, the microcatheter could not be retrieved. No other major complications related to PHIL injection were noted during the procedure or periprocedural period. Clinical follow-up ranging from 8 months to 1 year showed good outcomes in all but 1 patient, who experienced an intraventricular hemorrhage 6 weeks after embolization.

PHIL appears to be an effective alternative embolic material with certain advantages over other available liquid embolic agents. Further studies with adequate follow-up are required to fully evaluate its safety and efficacy.

Full access

Aaron Mohanty, Vani Santosh, B. Indira Devi, Satyanarayana Satish and Arundhati Biswas

Object

Intraventricular and paraventricular tumors resulting in hydrocephalus commonly require a CSF diversion procedure. A tumor biopsy can often be performed concurrently. Although the tissue samples obtained during endoscopic biopsy procedures are small, a diagnosis can be made in most cases. In the present study the authors analyzed the efficacy of concurrent endoscopic biopsy and CSF diversion procedures using a single bur hole and trajectory.

Methods

Eighty-seven patients with intraventricular and paraventricular tumors were treated with endoscopic biopsy and CSF diversion procedures using a rigid rod-lens endoscope or a rigid fiberscope during a 10-year period. All patients underwent a tumor biopsy and an endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), aqueductal stenting (AS), or ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting, depending on the tumor location and site of obstruction. A single bur hole for both procedures was used in all patients.

Results

Among the 87 patients, the biopsy was diagnostic in 72 (83%) and merely suggestive in 7 (8%); in 8 patients (9%) the sample was nondiagnostic. Among the 22 patients who underwent an initial endoscopic biopsy and subsequent procedures, the specimen obtained at the second surgery was concordant with the initial endoscopic biopsy sample in 13 patients; it was somewhat similar in 4 patients. In the other 5 patients, either a microsurgical or stereotactic approach was used to correctly diagnose the pathology. Fifty-five patients were considered for endoscopic CSF diversion procedures; an ETV was performed in 52 patients and AS in 2. An ETV could not be performed in 3 patients for technical reasons. A VP shunt was inserted in 32 patients, with 25 undergoing shunt placement at the same time as the ETV and 7 at a later date. Significant bleeding was encountered in 3 patients during the tumor biopsy and in 1 patient during the ETV. The ETV failed in 1 patient during the follow-up, and a repeat ETV was required.

Conclusions

Endoscopic biopsy sampling and a concurrent CSF diversion procedure through a single bur hole and trajectory can be considered for intraventricular tumors. The overall success rates of 83% for the biopsy procedure and 86% for the ETV indicate that the procedures are beneficial in the majority of cases. A concordance rate of 75% was found in patients who underwent an initial biopsy procedure and a subsequent microsurgical approach for tumor excision.

Restricted access

Poomagame Narasimhamurthy Harisha, B. Indira Devi, Rita Christopher and Tumkur Puttasiddhappa Kruthika-Vinod

Object

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common congenital malformations worldwide. Their etiology and exact mechanisms of development are incompletely understood. Many enzymes involved in folate metabolism and the genes encoding these enzymes have been studied as candidates in their etiology. A mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene—a C→T transition at nucleotide 677—is one among them. The mutation results in substitution of alanine by valine at a functionally important site in the enzyme. It has been shown to be a risk factor for development of NTDs in certain populations. The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of MTHFR 677 C→T mutation as a risk factor for NTD in the South Indian population and to determine the relative importance of the genotypes in the affected child and its mother.

Methods

Blood samples were collected from the test and the control groups. The test group consisted of children with NTDs and their mothers, while the control group consisted of apparently healthy controls. MTHFR C677T polymorphism in the 3 groups was determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism studies. Comparison of polymorphism in the 3 groups was using the chi-square test.

Results

There was a significant difference in the prevalence of MTHFR 677 C→T mutation among the 3 groups (p = 0.002). The risk conferred by the TT genotype in the child was statistically significant (OR 12.625, 95% CI 1.430–111.465). In the mothers, however, although there was an increased prevalence of the mutation compared with the control individuals, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.152).

Conclusions

The MTHFR 677TT genotype is considered to be a definite risk factor for development of NTDs. It is the TT genotype status of the developing embryo, rather than the TT genotype status of its mother, that is the critical genetic determinant of MTHFR-related NTD risk.

Restricted access

Umesh Srikantha, Jagadeesh V. Morab, Savitr Sastry, Rojin Abraham, Anandh Balasubramaniam, Sampath Somanna, Indira Devi, Chandramouli A. Bangalore and Paritosh Pandey

Object

Hydrocephalus is the most common complication of tubercular meningitis (TBM). Relieving hydrocephalus by ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement has been considered beneficial in patients in Palur Grade II or III. The role of VP shunt placement in those of Grade IV is controversial and the general tendency is to avoid its use. Some authors have suggested that patients in Grade IV should receive a shunt only if their condition improves with a trial placement of an external ventricular drain (EVD). In the present study, the authors assessed the outcome of VP shunt placement in patients in Grade IV TBM with hydrocephalus to examine the factors predicting outcome and to determine whether a trial with an EVD is absolutely necessary prior to shunt placement.

Methods

Ninety-five consecutive cases of TBM with hydrocephalus in which the patients underwent VP shunt placement were retrospectively analyzed, and direct VP shunts were placed whenever possible. An EVD was placed first only in the presence of deranged blood parameters. Outcomes were assessed both in the short and long term.

Results

The mean patient age was 17.5 years (range 1–55 years). Fifty-two patients underwent direct VP shunt placement, and the remaining 43 received EVDs first. Overall, 33 and 45% of patients had favorable short- and long-term outcomes, respectively. Age older than 3 years and duration of altered sensorium ≤ 3 days were predictive of a favorable short-term outcome. Glasgow Coma Scale score at presentation was predictive of long-term outcome. Of the patients who did not improve with placement of an EVD prior to VP shunt insertion, 24 and 18% had favorable short- and long-term outcomes, respectively; this was not significantly different from the outcome in the patients who underwent direct VP shunt placement.

Conclusions

Direct VP shunt placement is an effective option in patients with Grade IV TBM with hydrocephalus. Age and duration of altered sensorium are predictive of short-term outcome, while Glasgow Coma Scale score at presentation predicts long-term outcome. Ventriculoperitoneal shunts should be considered even in patients who do not improve with an EVD.

Restricted access

Madhugiri S. Venkatesh, Paritosh Pandey, B. Indira Devi, Kiran Khanapure, Sathyanarayana Satish, Somanna Sampath, Bangalore A. Chandramouli and Kolluri V. R. Sastry

Object

Pediatric cases of infratentorial subdural empyema (SDE) are both rare and associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study was to report patient characteristics, treatment, and outcome in an exclusively pediatric series of SDE cases.

Methods

A series of 14 pediatric cases of infratentorial SDE wasretrospectively analyzed. All patients were treated between 1994 and 2004. Sixty-four percent of the patients were boys; the majority of cases occurred during the summer months. Clinical features included headache, fever, vomiting, meningism, and otorrhea. Cerebellar signs were found only in 21% of patients. In 85.7% of the cases, the patients presented with a depressed level of consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale Scores 11–15). In 79.6%, pus collection was seen over the cerebellar convexity; interhemispheric and tentorial collections were also observed in some cases. Hydrocephalus was present in 92.9% of patients. Five patients required external ventricular drainage during surgery or postoperatively. Shunt placement was required in 21% of cases.

All patients were treated with antibiotic therapy and surgery (bur holes in 21% of the cases, craniectomy in 79%). Pus cultures demonstrated microbial infection in 71.4%, and polymicrobial infection in 21%. Four patients required repeated surgery for reaccumulation of pus. Minor postoperative complications developed in three patients. All 14 patients survived. At follow up, the Glasgow Outcome Scale scores were 4 or 5 in all cases.

Conclusions

Early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment are crucial in cases of SDE. With appropriate surgery, antibiotic therapy, and management of hydrocephalus, good outcome can be expected.

Restricted access

Paritosh Pandey, Srikantha Umesh, Dhananjaya Bhat, Dwarakanath Srinivas, Rojin Abraham, Shibu Pillai, Anandh Balasubramaniam, Indira Devi, Sommanna Sampath and Bengaluru A. Chandramouli

Object

Cerebellar abscesses are common neurosurgical emergencies in developing countries, and have a distressingly high mortality rate of 10 to 15% even today. There is still no consensus on the standard approach to these lesions, and controversy persists over whether these lesions should be treated with primary excision or aspiration.

Methods

The authors retrospectively analyzed 82 cases of cerebellar pyogenic abscesses in children treated at their institution over a period of 10 years. This represents the largest such series being described in literature. All lesions except 1 were otogenic in origin. The clinical and radiological features are discussed.

Results

Primary excision was undertaken in 66 patients (80%) and aspiration in 16 patients (20%). Five patients in whom the abscesses were initially treated with aspiration subsequently underwent elective excision. Nine (12.6%) of 71 patients in whom the abscesses were excised had residual abscesses on postoperative imaging; in those who had undergone aspiration as the primary treatment, 6 (54.5%) of 11 patients had recurrent abscesses. There were no deaths among the patients who underwent excision of the abscess. Also, excision of posterior fossa abscesses required fewer repeated procedures with lower recurrence rates, and statistically lower rate of complications.

Conclusions

Compared to primary aspiration, the authors found that primary excision is the preferred method for treating cerebellar abscesses.