✓ To develop a reproducible in vivo model for the growth of human meningiomas, meningiomas from 16 patients were implanted into the subrenal capsule of the nude mouse. In eight experiments solid tumor implants taken directly from surgical specimens were used, in four experiments the implants were made from early-passage monolayer cell cultures, and in four experiments both techniques were used. Successful tumor growth was observed in 10 (83%) of the 12 solid tumor implants and in six (75%) of the eight implants from cell cultures. The size and neovascularization of these tumors were serially determined over a 3-month period. Tumor doubling occurred in 1 to 3 weeks in all of the solid tumor implant group. In the group of six tumors successfully implanted from cell cultures, three doubled in 1 to 3 weeks and three grew more rapidly, reaching 10 to 20 times their original volume. Neovascularity occurred in the tumors within 3 weeks of implantation. Each of the solid tumor implants had a histological pattern similar to that of the corresponding original specimen. Only three of those implanted from cell cultures were similar to the original tumor; the other three displayed features characteristic of malignant meningioma. These studies suggest that implantation of human meningiomas in the subrenal capsule of the nude mouse is a feasible model that may be useful for evaluating hormonal or genetic modulation of tumor growth and for testing potential treatment regimens.
A model for studies of tumor growth
Azedine Medhkour, Melinda Van Roey, Raymond A. Sobel, Howard J. Fingert, Jungkyo Lee and Robert L. Martuza
Frederick A. Boop, Azedine Medhkour, John Honeycutt, Charles James, W. Bruce Cherny and Christopher Duntsch
✓ The authors report on the development of an anterior cerebral artery pseudoaneurysm that hemorrhaged after monopolar coagulation for a ventricular catheter lodged in the interhemispheric fissure. After observing this complication, the authors developed a simple bench test that can be performed by any neurosurgeon to determine the safest coagulation parameters for any given diathermy unit. A modified grounding pad was placed in a beaker of a protein solution consisting of egg whites. Ventricular catheters were then placed in the solution, and a monopolar diathermy current was applied to a metal stylet at various wattages and for different durations of time. Inducing coagulation at 40 W with a diathermy unit produced flames emanating from around the pores of the catheter tip. Flash flames were also observed at 35 W, forming a coagulum of egg white for a distance of up to 1 cm from the catheter tip. All heat was dissipated through the holes of the first 16 mm of the catheter. At 20 W the flame was minimal and coagulation appeared adequate, whereas at 15 W only bubbles were seen around the tip together with suboptimal coagulum formation.
This technique is a simple and effective means of determining the optimal setting for monopolar diathermy and can be used to figure the optimal catheter coagulation wattage for a given diathermy unit. Considering the results of this study, the authors have lowered the current for coagulation in ventricular catheters to 20 W.