Aygül Mert, Barbara Kiesel, Adelheid Wöhrer, Mauricio Martínez-Moreno, Georgi Minchev, Julia Furtner, Engelbert Knosp, Stefan Wolfsberger and Georg Widhalm
Surgery of suspected low-grade gliomas (LGGs) poses a special challenge for neurosurgeons due to their diffusely infiltrative growth and histopathological heterogeneity. Consequently, neuronavigation with multimodality imaging data, such as structural and metabolic data, fiber tracking, and 3D brain visualization, has been proposed to optimize surgery. However, currently no standardized protocol has been established for multimodality imaging data in modern glioma surgery. The aim of this study was therefore to define a specific protocol for multimodality imaging and navigation for suspected LGG.
Fifty-one patients who underwent surgery for a diffusely infiltrating glioma with nonsignificant contrast enhancement on MRI and available multimodality imaging data were included. In the first 40 patients with glioma, the authors retrospectively reviewed the imaging data, including structural MRI (contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and FLAIR sequences), metabolic images derived from PET, or MR spectroscopy chemical shift imaging, fiber tracking, and 3D brain surface/vessel visualization, to define standardized image settings and specific indications for each imaging modality. The feasibility and surgical relevance of this new protocol was subsequently prospectively investigated during surgery with the assistance of an advanced electromagnetic navigation system in the remaining 11 patients. Furthermore, specific surgical outcome parameters, including the extent of resection, histological analysis of the metabolic hotspot, presence of a new postoperative neurological deficit, and intraoperative accuracy of 3D brain visualization models, were assessed in each of these patients.
After reviewing these first 40 cases of glioma, the authors defined a specific protocol with standardized image settings and specific indications that allows for optimal and simultaneous visualization of structural and metabolic data, fiber tracking, and 3D brain visualization. This new protocol was feasible and was estimated to be surgically relevant during navigation-guided surgery in all 11 patients. According to the authors' predefined surgical outcome parameters, they observed a complete resection in all resectable gliomas (n = 5) by using contour visualization with T2-weighted or FLAIR images. Additionally, tumor tissue derived from the metabolic hotspot showed the presence of malignant tissue in all WHO Grade III or IV gliomas (n = 5). Moreover, no permanent postoperative neurological deficits occurred in any of these patients, and fiber tracking and/or intraoperative monitoring were applied during surgery in the vast majority of cases (n = 10). Furthermore, the authors found a significant intraoperative topographical correlation of 3D brain surface and vessel models with gyral anatomy and superficial vessels. Finally, real-time navigation with multimodality imaging data using the advanced electromagnetic navigation system was found to be useful for precise guidance to surgical targets, such as the tumor margin or the metabolic hotspot.
In this study, the authors defined a specific protocol for multimodality imaging data in suspected LGGs, and they propose the application of this new protocol for advanced navigation-guided procedures optimally in conjunction with continuous electromagnetic instrument tracking to optimize glioma surgery.
Georgi Minchev, Gernot Kronreif, Mauricio Martínez-Moreno, Christian Dorfer, Alexander Micko, Aygül Mert, Barbara Kiesel, Georg Widhalm, Engelbert Knosp and Stefan Wolfsberger
Robotic devices have recently been introduced in stereotactic neurosurgery in order to overcome the limitations of frame-based and frameless techniques in terms of accuracy and safety. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of the novel, miniature, iSYS1 robotic guidance device in stereotactic neurosurgery.
A preclinical phantom trial was conducted to compare the accuracy and duration of needle positioning between the robotic and manual technique in 162 cadaver biopsies. Second, 25 consecutive cases of tumor biopsies and intracranial catheter placements were performed with robotic guidance to evaluate the feasibility, accuracy, and duration of system setup and application in a clinical setting.
The preclinical phantom trial revealed a mean target error of 0.6 mm (range 0.1–0.9 mm) for robotic guidance versus 1.2 mm (range 0.1–2.6 mm) for manual positioning of the biopsy needle (p < 0.001). The mean duration was 2.6 minutes (range 1.3–5.5 minutes) with robotic guidance versus 3.7 minutes (range 2.0–10.5 minutes) with manual positioning (p < 0.001). Clinical application of the iSYS1 robotic guidance device was feasible in all but 1 case. The median real target error was 1.3 mm (range 0.2–2.6 mm) at entry and 0.9 mm (range 0.0–3.1 mm) at the target point. The median setup and instrument positioning times were 11.8 minutes (range 4.2–26.7 minutes) and 4.9 minutes (range 3.1–14.0 minutes), respectively.
According to the preclinical data, application of the iSYS1 robot can significantly improve accuracy and reduce instrument positioning time. During clinical application, the robot proved its high accuracy, short setup time, and short instrument positioning time, as well as demonstrating a short learning curve.
Christian Dorfer, Thomas Czech, Angelika Mühlebner-Fahrngruber, Aygül Mert, Gudrun Gröppel, Klaus Novak, Anastasia Dressler, Edith Reiter-Fink, Tatjana Traub-Weidinger and Martha Feucht
Outcomes following functional hemispherotomy in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy have been well described. However, studies reporting long-term longitudinal outcomes after subhemispheric disconnective epilepsy surgery are still limited.
The authors conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data of 10 children who underwent temporoparietooccipital (TPO) disconnective surgery at the Vienna Pediatric Epilepsy Center.
There were 3 males and 7 females (median age 8.7 years; range 4.2–22.1 years). The affected hemisphere was the left in 3 patients and the right in 7. The patients' median age at seizure onset was 3.0 years (range 0.2–8.3 years). The median duration of epilepsy before surgery was 5.2 years (range 1.3–17.2 years). The underlying pathology was TPO malformation of cortical development in 5 patients, and venous infarction, posterior hemispheric quadrant atrophy, Sturge-Weber syndrome, cortical involvement of a systemic lupus erythematosus, and gliosis after cerebral tumor treatment in 1 each. In 6 children, a pure TPO disconnection was performed; in 2 patients, the temporal lobe was resected and parietooccipital disconnection was performed. The 2 remaining patients had had previous epilepsy surgery that was extended to a TPO disconnection: disconnection of the occipital lobe (n = 1) and resection of the temporal lobe (n = 1). The authors encountered no complications while performing surgery. No patient needed blood replacement therapy. No patient developed CSF disturbances that warranted treatment. Nine of 10 patients are currently seizure free since surgery (Wieser Class 1a) at a median follow-up time of 2.1 years (range 4 months to 8.1 years).
Temporoparietooccipital disconnection is a safe and effective motor-sparing epilepsy surgery in selected cases. Technical adjuncts facilitate a better intraoperative visualization and orientation, thereby enabling a less invasive approach than previously suggested.