Avraam Ploumis, Chunhui Wu, Amir Mehbod, Gustav Fischer, Antonio Faundez, Wentien Wu and Ensor Transfeldt
Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a popular fusion technique for treating chronic low-back pain. In cases of interbody nonfusion, revision techniques for TLIF include anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) approaches. Biomechanical data of the revision techniques are not available. The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate construct stability, in terms of range of motion (ROM) and neutral zone (NZ), of a revision ALIF procedure for an unsuccessful TLIF. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of TLIF and its ALIF revision procedure was conducted on cadaveric nonosteoporotic human spine segments.
Twelve cadaveric lumbar motion segments with normal bone mineral density were loaded in unconstrained axial torsion, lateral bending, and flexion-extension under 0.05 Hz and ± 6-nm sinusoidal waveform. The specimens underwent TLIF (with posterior pedicle fixation) and anterior ALIF (with intact posterior fixation). Multidirectional flexibility testing was conducted following each step. The ROM and NZ data were measured and calculated for each test.
Globally, the TLIF and revision ALIF procedures significantly reduced ROM and NZ compared with that of the intact condition. The revision ALIF procedures achieved similar ROM as the TLIF procedure.
Revision ALIF maintained biomechanical stability of TLIF in nonosteoporotic spines. Revision ALIF can be performed without sacrificing spinal stability in cases of intact posterior instrumentation.
Avraam Ploumis, Todd J. Albert, Zoe Brown, Amir A. Mehbod and Ensor E. Transfeldt
The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of Healos graft carrier with bone marrow aspirate and local autograft compared with the results of allograft in patients with lumbar degenerative scoliosis undergoing posterolateral fusion.
Twenty-eight patients with degenerative scoliosis underwent posterolateral instrumented fusion and decompression. Patients were grouped according to the graft used. Group A consisted of 12 cases in which the authors used a Healos graft carrier, bone marrow aspirate, and local autograft, and Group B consisted of 16 cases in which the authors used cancellous allograft and local autograft. Patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years postoperatively in terms of pain (visual analog scale), function (Oswestry Disability Index), curve magnitude (Cobb angle), and fusion status (plain and dynamic radiographs). The 2 groups did not differ statistically significantly (p > 0.05) in age, sex, smoking habits, magnitude of preoperative visual analog scale score, Oswestry Disability Index score, Cobb angle, or number of levels requiring decompression and fusion.
The groups had similar (p > 0.05) results in terms of pain, function, curve progression, and fusion rates at the 2-year follow-up examination. Radiographic fusion was achieved in all but 2 cases, 1 in each group, in which the patients were asymptomatic. Patients in the allograft group (Group B) showed evidence of fusion earlier than in the Healos group (p < 0.05). No toxicity from Healos graft was recorded.
The combination of Healos hydroxyapatite sponge and bone marrow aspirate plus local allograft had significantly slower fusion rates but equal clinical outcomes compared with cancellous allograft plus local autograft when used for posterolateral fusion in patients with degenerative lumbar scoliosis.