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Atsushi Okawa, Hirotoshi Yoshida, Hirotaka Haro, and Kenichi Shinomiya

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Naoko Araya, Hiroyuki Inose, Tsuyoshi Kato, Masanori Saito, Satoshi Sumiya, Tsuyoshi Yamada, Toshitaka Yoshii, Shigenori Kawabata, and Atsushi Okawa

Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES) is a rare primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent staphylococcal infections in the skin and lungs, with an incidence of less than one case per million persons. Skeletal and connective tissue abnormalities, such as scoliosis, osteoporosis, pathological fractures, and hyperextensive joints, are other manifestations of HIES. However, only one report documents the use of implants to treat spinal deformity caused by HIES, which was discovered following corrective surgery resulting in postoperative infection. In this case report, the authors describe a 16-year-old male with low-back pain and infections of the soft tissue. Radiological findings showed deteriorated kyphotic deformity due to the pathological compression fracture of T-11 with intensive conservative treatment. Anterior and posterior fixation surgery was performed. Thereafter, the patient showed no signs of infection. An investigation was conducted to avoid any postoperative infection.

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Koichi Hayashi, Masayuki Hashimoto, Masao Koda, Atsuhiko T. Naito, Atsushi Murata, Akihiko Okawa, Kazuhisa Takahashi, and Masashi Yamazaki


Clinical use of autologous induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could circumvent immune rejection and bioethical issues associated with embryonic stem cells. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating trauma with long-lasting disability, and current therapeutic approaches are not satisfactory. In the present study, the authors used the neural stem sphere (NSS) method to differentiate iPSCs into astrocytes, which were evaluated after their transplantation into injured rat spinal cords.


Induced pluripotent stem cell–derived astrocytes were differentiated using the NSS method and injected 3 and 7 days after spinal contusion–based SCI. Control rats were injected with DMEM in the same manner. Locomotor recovery was assessed for 8 weeks, and sensory and locomotion tests were evaluated at 8 weeks. Immunohistological parameters were then assessed.


Transplant recipients lived for 8 weeks without tumor formation. Transplanted cells stretched their processes along the longitudinal axis, but they did not merge with the processes of host GFAP-positive astrocytes. Locomotion was assessed in 3 ways, but none of the tests detected statistically significant improvements compared with DMEM-treated control rats after 8 weeks. Rather, iPSC transplantation caused even greater sensitivity to mechanical stimulus than DMEM treatment.


Astrocytes can be generated by serum treatment of NSS-generated cells derived from iPSCs. However, transplantation of such cells is poorly suited for repairing SCI.

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Satoru Egawa, Toshitaka Yoshii, Kyohei Sakaki, Hiroyuki Inose, Tsuyoshi Kato, Shigenori Kawabata, Shoji Tomizawa, and Atsushi Okawa

Superficial siderosis (SS) of the CNS is a rare disease caused by repeated hemorrhages in the subarachnoid space. The subsequent deposition of hemosiderin in the brain and spinal cord leads to the progression of neurological deficits. The causes of bleeding include prior intradural surgery, carcinoma, arteriovenous malformation, nerve root avulsion, and dural abnormality. Recently, surgical treatment of SS associated with dural defect has been reported. The authors of the present report describe 2 surgically treated SS cases and review the literature on surgically treated SS. The patients had dural defects with fluid-filled collections in the spinal canal. In both cases, the dural defects were successfully closed, and the fluid collection was resolved postoperatively. In one case, the neurological symptoms did not progress postoperatively. In the other case, the patient had long history of SS, and the clinical manifestations partially deteriorated after surgery, despite the successful dural closure.

In previously reported surgically treated cases, the dural defects were closed by sutures, patches, fibrin glue, or muscle/fat grafting. Regardless of the closing method, dural defect closure has been shown to stop CSF leakage and subarachnoid hemorrhaging. Successfully repairing the defect can halt the disease progression in most cases and may improve the symptoms that are associated with CSF hypovolemia. However, the effect of the dural closure may be limited in patients with long histories of SS because of the irreversibility of the neural tissue damage caused by hemosiderin deposition. In patients with SS, it is important to diagnose and repair the dural defect early to minimize the neurological impairments that are associated with dural defects.

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Takaki Inoue, Satoshi Maki, Toshitaka Yoshii, Takeo Furuya, Satoru Egawa, Kenichiro Sakai, Kazuo Kusano, Yukihiro Nakagawa, Takashi Hirai, Kanichiro Wada, Keiichi Katsumi, Kengo Fujii, Atsushi Kimura, Narihito Nagoshi, Tsukasa Kanchiku, Yukitaka Nagamoto, Yasushi Oshima, Kei Ando, Masahiko Takahata, Kanji Mori, Hideaki Nakajima, Kazuma Murata, Shunji Matsunaga, Takashi Kaito, Kei Yamada, Sho Kobayashi, Satoshi Kato, Tetsuro Ohba, Satoshi Inami, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Hiroyuki Katoh, Haruo Kanno, Shiro Imagama, Masao Koda, Yoshiharu Kawaguchi, Katsushi Takeshita, Morio Matsumoto, Seiji Ohtori, Masashi Yamazaki, Atsushi Okawa, and


It is unclear whether anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ADF) or laminoplasty (LMP) results in better outcomes for patients with K-line–positive (+) cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). The purpose of the study is to compare surgical outcomes and complications of ADF versus LMP in patients with K-line (+) OPLL.


The study included 478 patients enrolled in the Japanese Multicenter Research Organization for Ossification of the Spinal Ligament and who underwent surgical treatment for cervical OPLL. The patients who underwent anterior-posterior combined surgery or posterior decompression with instrumented fusion were excluded. The patients with a follow-up period of fewer than 2 years were also excluded, leaving 198 patients with K-line (+) OPLL. Propensity score matching was performed on 198 patients with K-line (+) OPLL who underwent ADF (44 patients) or LMP (154 patients), resulting in 39 pairs of patients based on the following predictors for surgical outcomes: age, preoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, C2–7 angle, and the occupying ratio of OPLL. Clinical outcomes were assessed 1 and 2 years after surgery using the recovery rate of the JOA score. Complications and reoperation rates were also investigated.


The mean recovery rate of the JOA score 1 year after surgery was 55.3% for patients who underwent ADF and 42.3% (p = 0.06) for patients who underwent LMP. Two years after surgery, the recovery rate was 53.4% for those who underwent ADF and 38.7% for LMP (p = 0.07). Although both surgical procedures yielded good results, the mean recovery rate of JOA scores tended to be higher in the ADF group. The incidence of surgical complications, however, was higher following ADF (33%) than LMP (15%; p = 0.06). The reoperation rate was also higher in the ADF group (15%) than in the LMP group (0%; p = 0.01).


Clinical outcomes were good for both ADF and LMP, indicating that ADF and LMP are appropriate procedures for patients with K-line (+) OPLL. Clinical outcomes of ADF 1 and 2 years after surgery tended to be better than LMP, but the analysis did not detect any significant difference in clinical outcomes between the groups. Conversely, patients who underwent ADF had a higher incidence of surgery-related complications. When considering indications for ADF or LMP, benefits and risks of the surgical procedures should be carefully weighed.