Shiro Horisawa, Atsushi Fukui, Kotaro Kohara, Takakazu Kawamata and Takaomi Taira
The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of unilateral pallidotomy in patients with asymmetrical cervical dystonia.
This study retrospectively included 25 consecutive patients with asymmetrical cervical dystonia refractory to botulinum toxin injections, who underwent unilateral pallidotomy between January 2015 and April 2017. Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) scores were evaluated preoperatively and 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively. The clinical responses were defined as good responders, exhibiting > 50% improvement in the TWSTRS score at 6 months postsurgery, or poor responders, exhibiting < 50% improvement in TWSTRS scores at 6 months postsurgery.
Twelve and 9 patients showed right- and left-side rotation, respectively; 1 and 3 patients had right- and left-side laterocollis, respectively. The mean age of onset and duration of the disease were 40.2 ± 13.9 and 8.9 ± 10.9 years, respectively. Mean TWSTRS scores were 38.4 ± 12.6 (p < 0.001), 17.3 ± 12.4 (p < 0.001), 19.5 ± 13.4 (p < 0.001), and 20.0 ± 14.7 (p < 0.001), preoperatively and 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively, respectively. Fourteen patients (56%) demonstrated > 50% improvement in their TWSTRS total score (mean improvement of TWSTRS total score = 70.5%) 6 months postsurgically. Furthermore, preoperative TWSTRS severity score was a prognostic factor (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.06–1.78, p = 0.003).
These results suggest that unilateral pallidotomy is an acceptable treatment option for asymmetrical cervical dystonia. Further investigations with a larger number of cases and longer follow-up period are required to confirm these data.
Taiichi Saito, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Manabu Tamura, Takashi Maruyama, Masayuki Nitta, Shunsuke Tsuzuki, Atsushi Fukui and Takakazu Kawamata
Identification of the motor area during awake craniotomy is crucial for preservation of motor function when resecting gliomas located within or close to the motor area or the pyramidal tract. Nevertheless, sometimes the surgeon cannot identify the motor area during awake craniotomy. However, the factors that influence failure to identify the motor area have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess whether tumor localization was correlated with a negative cortical response in motor mapping during awake craniotomy in patients with gliomas located within or close to the motor area or pyramidal tract.
Between April 2000 and May 2019 at Tokyo Women’s Medical University, awake craniotomy was performed to preserve motor function in 137 patients with supratentorial glioma. Ninety-one of these patients underwent intraoperative cortical motor mapping for a primary glioma located within or close to the motor area or pyramidal tract and were enrolled in the study. MRI was used to evaluate whether or not the tumors were localized to or involved the precentral gyrus. The authors performed motor functional mapping with electrical stimulation during awake craniotomy and evaluated the correlation between identification of the motor area and various clinical characteristics, including localization to the precentral gyrus.
Thirty-four of the 91 patients had tumors that were localized to the precentral gyrus. The mean extent of resection was 89.4%. Univariate analyses revealed that identification of the motor area correlated significantly with age and localization to the precentral gyrus. Multivariate analyses showed that older age (≥ 45 years), larger tumor volume (> 35.5 cm3), and localization to the precentral gyrus were significantly correlated with failure to identify the motor area (p = 0.0021, 0.0484, and 0.0015, respectively). Localization to the precentral gyrus showed the highest odds ratio (14.135) of all regressors.
Identification of the motor area can be difficult when a supratentorial glioma is localized to the precentral gyrus. The authors’ findings are important when performing awake craniotomy for glioma located within or close to the motor area or the pyramidal tract. A combination of transcortical motor evoked potential monitoring and awake craniotomy including subcortical motor mapping may be needed for removal of gliomas showing negative responses in the motor area to preserve the motor-related subcortical fibers.