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Shiro Horisawa, Atsushi Fukui, Kotaro Kohara, Takakazu Kawamata, and Takaomi Taira

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of unilateral pallidotomy in patients with asymmetrical cervical dystonia.

METHODS

This study retrospectively included 25 consecutive patients with asymmetrical cervical dystonia refractory to botulinum toxin injections, who underwent unilateral pallidotomy between January 2015 and April 2017. Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) scores were evaluated preoperatively and 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively. The clinical responses were defined as good responders, exhibiting > 50% improvement in the TWSTRS score at 6 months postsurgery, or poor responders, exhibiting < 50% improvement in TWSTRS scores at 6 months postsurgery.

RESULTS

Twelve and 9 patients showed right- and left-side rotation, respectively; 1 and 3 patients had right- and left-side laterocollis, respectively. The mean age of onset and duration of the disease were 40.2 ± 13.9 and 8.9 ± 10.9 years, respectively. Mean TWSTRS scores were 38.4 ± 12.6 (p < 0.001), 17.3 ± 12.4 (p < 0.001), 19.5 ± 13.4 (p < 0.001), and 20.0 ± 14.7 (p < 0.001), preoperatively and 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively, respectively. Fourteen patients (56%) demonstrated > 50% improvement in their TWSTRS total score (mean improvement of TWSTRS total score = 70.5%) 6 months postsurgically. Furthermore, preoperative TWSTRS severity score was a prognostic factor (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.06–1.78, p = 0.003).

CONCLUSIONS

These results suggest that unilateral pallidotomy is an acceptable treatment option for asymmetrical cervical dystonia. Further investigations with a larger number of cases and longer follow-up period are required to confirm these data.

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Shiro Horisawa, Atsushi Fukui, Hayato Yamahata, Yukiko Tanaka, Atsushi Kuwano, Oji Momosaki, Mutsumi Iijima, Magi Nanke, Takakazu Kawamata, and Takaomi Taira

OBJECTIVE

Neurosurgical ablation is an effective treatment for medically refractory motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). A limited number of studies have reported the effect of ablation of the pallidothalamic tract for PD. In this study, the authors evaluated the safety and efficacy of unilateral pallidothalamic tractotomy for akinetic-rigid (AR)–PD.

METHODS

Fourteen AR-PD patients, who were enrolled in this prospective open-label study, underwent unilateral pallidothalamic tractotomy. The Movement Disorder Society–Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part III and Part IV (dyskinesia and dystonia) scores and levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) were evaluated at baseline and at 3 and 12 months postoperatively.

RESULTS

Of the 14 patients enrolled in the study, 4 were lost to follow-up and 10 were analyzed. The total MDS-UPDRS Part III score significantly improved from 45 ± 4.6 at baseline to 32.9 ± 4.8 at 12 months postoperatively (p = 0.005). Contralateral side rigidity and bradykinesia significantly improved from 4.4 ± 0.5 and 10.4 ± 1.5 at baseline to 1.7 ± 0.4 (p = 0.005) and 5.2 ± 1.4 (p = 0.011) at 12 months, respectively. While posture significantly improved with a 20% reduction in scores (p = 0.038), no significant improvement was found in gait (p = 0.066). Dyskinesia and dystonia were improved with a 79.2% (p = 0.0012) and 91.7% (p = 0.041) reduction in scores, respectively. No significant change was found in the LEDD. Hypophonia was noted in 2 patients, eyelid apraxia was noted in 1 patient, and a reduced response to levodopa, which resulted in an increase in the daily dose of levodopa, was noted in 3 patients. No serious permanent neurological deficits were observed.

CONCLUSIONS

Unilateral pallidothalamic tractotomy improved contralateral side rigidity and bradykinesia, dyskinesia, and dystonia in patients with AR-PD.

Clinical trial registration no.: UMIN000031138 (umin.ac.jp)

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Taiichi Saito, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Manabu Tamura, Takashi Maruyama, Masayuki Nitta, Shunsuke Tsuzuki, Atsushi Fukui, and Takakazu Kawamata

OBJECTIVE

Identification of the motor area during awake craniotomy is crucial for preservation of motor function when resecting gliomas located within or close to the motor area or the pyramidal tract. Nevertheless, sometimes the surgeon cannot identify the motor area during awake craniotomy. However, the factors that influence failure to identify the motor area have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess whether tumor localization was correlated with a negative cortical response in motor mapping during awake craniotomy in patients with gliomas located within or close to the motor area or pyramidal tract.

METHODS

Between April 2000 and May 2019 at Tokyo Women’s Medical University, awake craniotomy was performed to preserve motor function in 137 patients with supratentorial glioma. Ninety-one of these patients underwent intraoperative cortical motor mapping for a primary glioma located within or close to the motor area or pyramidal tract and were enrolled in the study. MRI was used to evaluate whether or not the tumors were localized to or involved the precentral gyrus. The authors performed motor functional mapping with electrical stimulation during awake craniotomy and evaluated the correlation between identification of the motor area and various clinical characteristics, including localization to the precentral gyrus.

RESULTS

Thirty-four of the 91 patients had tumors that were localized to the precentral gyrus. The mean extent of resection was 89.4%. Univariate analyses revealed that identification of the motor area correlated significantly with age and localization to the precentral gyrus. Multivariate analyses showed that older age (≥ 45 years), larger tumor volume (> 35.5 cm3), and localization to the precentral gyrus were significantly correlated with failure to identify the motor area (p = 0.0021, 0.0484, and 0.0015, respectively). Localization to the precentral gyrus showed the highest odds ratio (14.135) of all regressors.

CONCLUSIONS

Identification of the motor area can be difficult when a supratentorial glioma is localized to the precentral gyrus. The authors’ findings are important when performing awake craniotomy for glioma located within or close to the motor area or the pyramidal tract. A combination of transcortical motor evoked potential monitoring and awake craniotomy including subcortical motor mapping may be needed for removal of gliomas showing negative responses in the motor area to preserve the motor-related subcortical fibers.