Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for

  • Author or Editor: Ashley L. B. Raghu x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

Tariq Parker, Ashley L. B. Raghu, James J. FitzGerald, Alexander L. Green, and Tipu Z. Aziz

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of single-target nuclei has produced remarkable functional outcomes in a number of movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. While these benefits are well established, DBS efficacy and strategy for unusual, unclassified movement disorder syndromes is less clear. A strategy of dual pallidal and thalamic electrode placement is a rational approach in such cases where there is profound, medically refractory functional impairment. The authors report a series of such cases: midbrain cavernoma hemorrhage with olivary hypertrophy, spinocerebellar ataxia-like disorder of probable genetic origin, Holmes tremor secondary to brainstem stroke, and hemiballismus due to traumatic thalamic hemorrhage, all treated by dual pallidal and thalamic DBS. All patients demonstrated robust benefit from DBS, maintained in long-term follow-up. This series demonstrates the flexibility and efficacy, but also the limitations, of dual thalamo-pallidal stimulation for managing axial and limb symptoms of tremors, dystonia, chorea, and hemiballismus in patients with complex movement disorders.

Free access

Tariq Parker, Ashley L. B. Raghu, James J. FitzGerald, Alexander L. Green, and Tipu Z. Aziz

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of single-target nuclei has produced remarkable functional outcomes in a number of movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. While these benefits are well established, DBS efficacy and strategy for unusual, unclassified movement disorder syndromes is less clear. A strategy of dual pallidal and thalamic electrode placement is a rational approach in such cases where there is profound, medically refractory functional impairment. The authors report a series of such cases: midbrain cavernoma hemorrhage with olivary hypertrophy, spinocerebellar ataxia-like disorder of probable genetic origin, Holmes tremor secondary to brainstem stroke, and hemiballismus due to traumatic thalamic hemorrhage, all treated by dual pallidal and thalamic DBS. All patients demonstrated robust benefit from DBS, maintained in long-term follow-up. This series demonstrates the flexibility and efficacy, but also the limitations, of dual thalamo-pallidal stimulation for managing axial and limb symptoms of tremors, dystonia, chorea, and hemiballismus in patients with complex movement disorders.

Restricted access

Ashley L. B. Raghu, Sean C. Martin, Tariq Parker, Tipu Z. Aziz, and Alexander L. Green

OBJECTIVE

The anatomy of the posterolateral thalamus varies substantially between individuals, presenting a challenge for surgical targeting. Patient-specific, connectivity-based parcellation of the thalamus may effectively approximate the ventrocaudal nucleus (Vc). This remains to be robustly validated or assessed as a method to guide surgical targeting. The authors assessed the validity of connectivity-based parcellation for targeting the Vc and its potential for improving clinical outcomes of pain surgery.

METHODS

A cohort of 19 patients with regional, chronic neuropathic pain underwent preoperative structural and diffusion MRI, then progressed to deep brain stimulation targeting the Vc based on traditional atlas coordinates. Surgical thalami were retrospectively segmented and then parcellated based on tractography estimates of thalamocortical connectivity. The location of each patient’s electrode array was analyzed with respect to their primary somatosensory cortex (S1) parcel and compared across patients with reference to the thalamic homunculus.

RESULTS

Ten patients achieved long-term pain relief. Sixty-one percent of an average array (interquartile range 42%–74%) was located in the S1 parcel. In patients who achieved long-term benefit from surgery, array location in the individually generated S1 parcels was medial for face pain, centromedial for arm pain, and centrolateral for leg pain. Patients who did not benefit from surgery did not follow this pattern. Standard stereotactic coordinates of electrode locations diverged from this pattern.

CONCLUSIONS

Connectivity-based parcellation of the thalamus appears to be a reliable method for segmenting the Vc. Identifying the Vc in this way, and targeting mediolaterally as appropriate for the region of pain, merits exploration in an effort to increase the yield of successful surgical procedures.