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Ashish H. Shah, Michael E. Ivan and Ricardo J. Komotar

Meningiomas that partially or completely occlude the superior sagittal sinus may create a pseudotumor-like syndrome in certain patients. These patients may have impaired CSF absorption as a result of higher proximal venous pressure. Higher pressures after resection may encumber adequate wound healing and worsen symptoms. Here, the authors present a small series of patients with meningiomas involving the posterior third of the superior sagittal sinus, with documented high intracranial pressure prior to surgery. This paper aims to address the proposed etiology of high intracranial pressure in these patients and its associated complications, including CSF leak, wound dehiscence, pressure-related headaches, and visual complaints. In this paper, the authors propose a management plan to avoid wound complications and pseudotumor-related complications. When considering surgical intervention for patients with compromise of the posterior third of the superior sagittal sinus, careful attention must be paid to addressing potentially elevated intracranial pressure perioperatively.

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Giuseppe Lanzino

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Ashish H. Shah, Anthony C. Wang and Jacques J. Morcos

Superficial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with favorable Spetzler-Martin grading are amenable to primary surgical resection. Careful preoperative workup including preoperative angiograms is essential to identify feeding artery aneurysms and deep venous drainage. The authors present a 37-year-old female who presented with a Spetzler-Martin Grade II right parietal superficial AVM with a 5-mm feeding artery aneurysm from the posterior cerebral artery. Given the risk of hemorrhage, the AVM was resected completely without any complications. On subsequent postoperative angiograms, the feeding artery aneurysm diminished in caliber. Feeding artery aneurysms may regress spontaneously after resection of an AVM due to flow-related changes.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/PpwODc9iI3g.

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Ashish H. Shah, Ernest Barthélemy, Yudy Lafortune, Joanna Gernsback, Ariel Henry, Barth Green and John Ragheb

Given Haiti’s longstanding socioeconomic burden and recent environmental and epidemiological catastrophes, the capacity for neurosurgery within Haiti has been limited, and outcomes for patients with neurosurgical conditions have remained poor. With few formally trained neurosurgeons (4) in a country of 10.5 million inhabitants, there is a significant need for the development of formal structured neurosurgical training. To mitigate the lack of neurosurgical care within Haiti, the authors established the first neurosurgical residency program within the country by creating an integrated model that uniquely fortifies existing Haitian neurosurgery with government sponsorship (Haitian Ministry of Health and National Medical School) and continual foreign support. By incorporating web-based learning modules, online assessments, teleconferences, and visiting professorships, the residency aims to train neurosurgeons over the course of 3–5 years to meet the healthcare needs of the nation. Although in its infancy, this model aims to facilitate neurosurgical capacity building by ultimately creating a self-sustaining residency program.

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Ashish H. Shah, Ignacio Jusué-Torres, Michael E. Ivan, Ricardo J. Komotar and Noriyuki Kasahara

In the late 19th century, Dr. William B. Coley introduced the theory that infections may aid in the treatment of malignancy. With the creation of Coley’s toxin, reports of remission during viral illnesses for systemic malignancies soon emerged. A few decades after this initial discovery, Austrian physicians performed intravascular injections of Clostridium to induce oncolysis in patients with glioblastoma. Since then, suggestions between improved survival and infectious processes have been reported in several patients with glioma, which ultimately marshaled the infamous use of intracerebral Enterobacter. These early observations of tumor regression and concomitant infection piloted a burgeoning field focusing on the use of pathogens in molecular oncology.

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Ashish H. Shah, George M. Ibrahim, Jun Sasaki, John Ragheb, Sanjiv Bhatia and Toba N. Niazi

OBJECTIVE

Although endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) with choroid plexus cauterization (CPC) has gained increasing prominence in the management of hydrocephalus caused by intraventricular hemorrhage of prematurity, the rates of long-term shunt independence remain low. Furthermore, limited evidence is available to identify infants who might benefit from the procedure. The authors tested the hypothesis that elevated venous pressure that results from comorbid cardiac disease might predispose patients to ETV/CPC failure and shunt dependence.

METHODS

A retrospective analysis was performed on a consecutive series of 48 infants with hydrocephalus who underwent ETV/CPC and also underwent preoperative echocardiography between 2007 and 2014. Comorbid cardiac abnormalities that are known to result in elevated right heart pressure were reviewed. Associations between ETV/CPC success and the presence of pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, left-to-right shunting, ventricular septal defect, or patent ductus arteriosus were determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS

Of the 48 children who met the inclusion criteria, ETV/CPC failed in 31 (65%). In univariate analysis, no single echocardiogram abnormality was associated with shunt failure, but the presence of 2 or more concurrent echocardiogram abnormalities was associated with ETV/CPC failure (17 [85%] of 20 vs 14 [50%] of 28, respectively; p = 0.018). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, when the authors adjusted for the child’s ETV success score, the presence of 2 abnormalities remained independently associated with poor outcome (2 or more echocardiogram abnormalities, OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.01–0.7, p = 0.032; ETV success score, OR 1.1, 95% CI 1–1.2, p = 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, cardiac abnormalities were inversely associated with the success of ETV/CPC in infants with hydrocephalus of prematurity. ETV/CPC might not be as efficacious in patients with significant cardiac anomalies. These results provide a basis for future efforts to stratify surgical candidacy for ETV/CPC on the basis of comorbid abnormalities. Proper cardiac physiological pressure monitoring might help elucidate the relationship between cardiac abnormalities and hydrocephalus.

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Noam Alperin, James Ryan Loftus, Ahmet M. Bagci, Sang H. Lee, Carlos J. Oliu, Ashish H. Shah and Barth A. Green

OBJECTIVE

This study identifies quantitative imaging-based measures in patients with Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) that are associated with positive outcomes after suboccipital decompression with duraplasty.

METHODS

Fifteen patients in whom CM-I was newly diagnosed underwent MRI preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. More than 20 previously described morphological and physiological parameters were derived to assess quantitatively the impact of surgery. Postsurgical clinical outcomes were assessed in 2 ways, based on resolution of the patient's chief complaint and using a modified Chicago Chiari Outcome Scale (CCOS). Statistical analyses were performed to identify measures that were different between the unfavorable- and favorable-outcome cohorts. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the strongest predictors of outcome.

RESULTS

The strongest physiological parameter predictive of outcome was the preoperative maximal cord displacement in the upper cervical region during the cardiac cycle, which was significantly larger in the favorable-outcome subcohorts for both outcome types (p < 0.05). Several hydrodynamic measures revealed significantly larger preoperative-to-postoperative changes in the favorable-outcome subcohort. Predictor sets for the chief-complaint classification included the cord displacement, percent venous drainage through the jugular veins, and normalized cerebral blood flow with 93.3% accuracy. Maximal cord displacement combined with intracranial volume change predicted outcome based on the modified CCOS classification with similar accuracy.

CONCLUSIONS

Tested physiological measures were stronger predictors of outcome than the morphological measures in patients with CM-I. Maximal cord displacement and intracranial volume change during the cardiac cycle together with a measure that reflects the cerebral venous drainage pathway emerged as likely predictors of decompression outcome in patients with CM-I.

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Ashish H. Shah, Angela M. Richardson, Joshua D. Burks and Ricardo J. Komotar

Recurrent treatment-refractory brain metastases can be treated with modern adjuvant therapies such as laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT). Since previously radiated lesions may be indolent (treatment effect) or recurrent tumor, histological confirmation may be helpful. The authors present the utility of contemporaneous biopsy and LITT using intraoperative O-arm navigation in a patient who presented with multiple refractory metastases. The authors demonstrate the utility of O-arm navigation to confirm intraoperative biopsy and LITT placement. Concurrent stereotactic biopsy and LITT may be a safe and efficacious method for both the diagnosis and treatment of deep lesions that are unamenable to standard adjuvant treatment modalities.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/SUY-qiahMyo.

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Sung-Hua Chiu, I-Duo Wang, Huey-Kang Sytwu and Dueng-Yuan Hueng

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Manish Kuchakulla, Ashish H. Shah, Valerie Armstrong, Sarah Jernigan, Sanjiv Bhatia and Toba N. Niazi

OBJECTIVE

Carotid body tumors (CBTs), extraadrenal paragangliomas, are extremely rare neoplasms in children that often require multimodal surgical treatment, including preoperative anesthesia workup, embolization, and resection. With only a few cases reported in the pediatric literature, treatment paradigms and surgical morbidity are loosely defined, especially when carotid artery infiltration is noted. Here, the authors report two cases of pediatric CBT and provide the results of a systematic review of the literature.

METHODS

The study was divided into two sections. First, the authors conducted a retrospective review of our series of pediatric CBT patients and screened for patients with evidence of a CBT over the last 10 years (2007–2017) at a single tertiary referral pediatric hospital. Second, they conducted a systematic review, according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, of all reported cases of pediatric CBTs to determine the characteristics (tumor size, vascularity, symptomatology), treatment paradigms, and complications.

RESULTS

In the systematic review (n = 21 patients [includes 19 cases found in the literature and 2 from the authors’ series]), the mean age at diagnosis was 11.8 years. The most common presenting symptoms were palpable neck mass (62%), cranial nerve palsies (33%), cough or dysphagia (14%), and neck pain (19%). Metastasis occurred only in 5% of patients, and 19% of cases were recurrent lesions. Only 10% of patients presented with elevated catecholamines and associated sympathetic involvement. Preoperative embolization was utilized in 24% of patients (external carotid artery in 4 and external carotid artery and vertebral artery in 1). Cranial nerve palsies (cranial nerve VII [n = 1], IX [n = 1], X [n = 4], XI [n = 1], and XII [n = 3]) were the most common cause of surgical morbidity (33% of cases). The patients in the authors’ illustrative cases underwent preoperative embolization and balloon test occlusion followed by resection, and both patients suffered from transient Horner’s syndrome after embolization.

CONCLUSIONS

Surgical management of CBTs requires an extensive preoperative workup, anesthesia, and multimodal surgical management. Due to a potentially high rate of surgical morbidity and vascularity, balloon test occlusion with embolization may be necessary in select patients prior to resection. Careful thorough preoperative counseling is vital to preparing families for the intensive management of these children.