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Shriram Varadharajan, Arvinda Hanumanthapura Ramalingaiah, Jitender Saini, Arun Kumar Gupta, B. Indira Devi and Ullas V. Acharya

Precipitating hydrophobic injectable liquid (PHIL) is a newly available liquid embolic agent for endovascular therapy. It is nonadhesive and composed of a biocompatible polymer dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide solvent and bonded covalently with iodine.

In this report, the authors present their preliminary experience using PHIL in the treatment of intracranial vascular shunts. Between July 2015 and December 2015, 11 patients underwent endovascular embolization using the PHIL embolic agent. Five patients had arteriovenous malformations, 4 had dural arteriovenous fistulas, 1 patient had a carotid-cavernous fistula, and 1 patient had a pial arteriovenous fistula. Clinical features, angioarchitectural characteristics, procedural details, and periprocedural complications were included in the analysis.

Complete or near-complete obliteration of the nidus or fistulas was achieved in 8 of these patients. Partial embolization (approximately 80% in 2 and 30% in 1) was attained in the other 3 patients. Satisfactory venous penetration after nidal embolization was achieved in all patients. In 1 patient, the microcatheter could not be retrieved. No other major complications related to PHIL injection were noted during the procedure or periprocedural period. Clinical follow-up ranging from 8 months to 1 year showed good outcomes in all but 1 patient, who experienced an intraventricular hemorrhage 6 weeks after embolization.

PHIL appears to be an effective alternative embolic material with certain advantages over other available liquid embolic agents. Further studies with adequate follow-up are required to fully evaluate its safety and efficacy.

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Satya Narayna Patro, Arun Kumar Gupta, Hanumanthapura Ramlingaiah Arvinda, Milan babulal Jolapara and Jitender Saini

The authors report a rare case of spontaneous left vertebrovertebral fistula associated with neurofibromatosis Type 1 in a young woman. The patient had undergone previous failed surgical attempts to close the fistula and presented to the authors with recurrence of the fistula and neurological deterioration. Successful obliteration of the fistula with combined transarterial and percutaneous coiling with Guglielmi detachable coils resulted in disappearance of the fistula and significant neurological improvement.

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Keerthiraj Bele, Hima Shriniwas Pendharkar, Easwer Venkat and Arun Kumar Gupta

Anterior dural ectasia is an extremely rare finding in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The authors describe a unique case of AS in which the patient presented with cauda equina syndrome as well as an unusual imaging finding of erosion of the posterior aspect of the L-1 (predominantly) and L-2 vertebral bodies due to anterior dural ectasia. Symptomatic patients with long-standing AS should be monitored for the presence of dural ectasia, which can be anterior in location, as is demonstrated in the present case.

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Arun Kumar Gupta, Vedula Rajani Kanth Rao, Dandu Ravi Varma, Tirur R. Kapilamoorthy, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas, Thamburaj Krishnamoorthy, Bejoy Thomas, Narendra K. Bodhey and Sukalyan Purkayastha


Vein of Galen malformations (VGMs) are extremely rare intracranial lesions. Clinical presentation and management strategies vary significantly in different areas of the world. The authors report their experience in evaluation, management, and long-term follow up of these lesions in India.


Between October 1983 and June 2003, 25 patients with VGMs were referred to the authors’ institution for evaluation and management. Ten children younger than 2 years of age presented with rapidly increasing head size as the chief complaint. Among 11 children 2 years of age or older, the most common presenting symptom was chronic headache. Four patients who presented during adulthood had chronic headache for many years before presentation. Angiographic evaluation of the lesion was performed in 21 patients. Fifteen patients were treated using endovascular techniques. Injection of the embolic material was performed after induction of systemic hypotension when the flow in the fistula was high.

Complete occlusion of the arteriovenous shunt could be achieved in two patients with vein of Galen aneurysmal dilation (100% of patients with this type of malformation) and in five of the six patients with the mural type of malformation (83%). Among patients with the choroidal type of malformation, complete obliteration of the shunt could be achieved in three patients. In three patients with high-flow choroidal malformations, embolization carried out in a single sitting resulted in shunt reduction of nearly 90%. These patients received clinical follow up.


The authors’ experience in evaluation and management of VGMs reveals that in areas of the world where access to dedicated specialist care is limited, the clinical presentation of VGMs can differ appreciably from the classic descriptions in the literature. Endovascular management of these lesions results in excellent angiographic and clinical results.