The V3 segment of the vertebral artery (VA) has been studied in various clinical scenarios, such as in tumors of the craniovertebral junction and dissecting aneurysms. However, its use as a donor artery in cerebral revascularization procedures has not been extensively studied. In this report, the authors summarize their clinical experience in cerebral revascularization procedures using the V3 segment as a donor. A brief anatomical description of the relevant techniques is also provided.
Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Arnau Benet and Michael T. Lawton
Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Michael T. Lawton, Xuequan Feng and Arnau Benet
Reimplantation of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) to the vertebral artery (VA) is a safe and effective bypass option after deliberate PICA sacrifice during the treatment of nonsaccular and dissecting aneurysms at this location. However, the anatomy and limitations of this technique have not been studied. The goal of this study was to define the surgical anatomy and buffer lengths specific to the proximal segment of the PICA related to 2 variations of PICA reimplantation: 1) reimplantation “along-VA” (simulating a dissecting VA aneurysm), and 2) reimplantation “across-VA” (simulating a nonclippable, proximal PICA aneurysm).
Ten cadaver heads (20 sides) were prepared for surgical simulation. Twenty far-lateral approaches were performed. The PICA was mobilized and reimplanted onto the VA according to 2 different paradigms: 1) transposition along the axis of the VA (along-VA) to simulate a dissecting VA, and 2) transposition perpendicular to the axis of the VA (across-VA) to simulate a nonclippable, proximal PICA aneurysm. The buffer lengths provided by mobilization of the artery in each paradigm were measured and the anatomy of perforator branching on the proximal PICAs was analyzed.
The PICA was reimplanted in all surgical simulations. The most common perforating artery on the P1 and P2 segments was the short circumflex type. No direct perforator was found on the P1 segment. The mean buffer length with reimplantation along the VA axis was 13.43 ± 4.61 mm, and it was 6.97 ± 4.04 mm with reimplantation across the VA. The PICA was less maneuverable when it was reimplanted across the VA, due to perforator branches of the PICA (P3 segment).
The buffer lengths measured in this study describe the limitations of PICA reimplantation as a revascularization procedure for nonsaccular aneurysms in this location. PICA reimplantation is a revascularization option for dissecting VA aneurysms incorporating the PICA origin that are < 13 mm in length, and for nonsaccular proximal PICA aneurysms that are < 6 mm in diameter. The final decision to reimplant the PICA depends on careful inspection of perforator anatomy that is not visible preoperatively on angiography, as well as an assessment of technical difficulty intraoperatively.
Ali Tayebi Meybodi and Arnau Benet
Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Michael T. Lawton, Halima Tabani and Arnau Benet
Surgical access to the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle (LR) is suboptimal with existing transvermian and telovelar approaches because of limited lateral exposure, significant retraction of the cerebellar tonsil, and steep trajectories near brainstem perforator arteries. The goal in this study was to assess surgical exposure of the tonsillobiventral fissure approach to the LR, and to describe the relevant anatomy.
Two formaldehyde-fixed cerebella were used to study the anatomical relationships of the LR. Also, the tonsillobiventral fissure approach was simulated in 8 specimens through a lateral suboccipital craniotomy.
The pattern of the cerebellar folia and the cortical branches of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery were key landmarks to identifying the tonsillobiventral fissure. Splitting the tonsillobiventral fissure allowed a direct and safe surgical trajectory to the LR and into the cerebellopontine cistern. The proposed approach reduces cervical flexion and optimizes the surgical angle of attack.
The tonsillobiventral fissure approach is a feasible and effective option for exposing the LR. This approach has more favorable trajectories and positions for the patient and the surgeon, and it should be added to the armamentarium for lesions in this location.
Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Michael T. Lawton, Dylan Griswold, Pooneh Mokhtari, Andre Payman and Arnau Benet
The anterior temporal artery (ATA) supplies an area of the brain that, if sacrificed, does not cause a noticeable loss of function. Therefore, the ATA may be used as a donor in intracranial-intracranial (IC-IC) bypass procedures. The capacities of the ATA as a donor have not been studied previously. In this study, the authors assessed the feasibility of using the ATA as a donor for revascularization of different segments of the distal middle cerebral artery (MCA).
The ATA was studied in 15 cadaveric specimens (8 heads, excluding 1 side). First, the cisternal segment of the artery was untethered from arachnoid adhesions and small branches feeding the anterior temporal lobe and insular cortex, to evaluate its capacity for a side-to-side bypass to insular, opercular, and cortical segments of the MCA. Any branch entering the anterior perforated substance was preserved. Then, the ATA was cut at the opercular-cortical junction and the capacity for an end-to-side bypass was assessed.
From a total of 17 ATAs, 4 (23.5%) arose as an early MCA branch. The anterior insular zone and the frontal parasylvian cortical arteries were the best targets (in terms of mobility and caliber match) for a side-to-side bypass. Most of the insula was accessible for end-to-side bypass, but anterior zones of the insula were more accessible than posterior zones. End-to-side bypass was feasible for most recipient cortical arteries along the opercula, except for posterior temporal and parietal regions. Early ATAs reached significantly farther on the insular MCA recipients than non-early ATAs for both side-to-side and end-to-side bypasses.
The ATA is a robust arterial donor for IC-IC bypass procedures, including side-to-side and end-to-side techniques. The evidence provided in this work supports the use of the ATA as a donor for distal MCA revascularization in well-selected patients.
Arnau Benet, Jordina Rincon-Torroella, Michael T. Lawton and J. J. González Sánchez
Surgical simulation using postmortem human heads is one of the most valid strategies for neurosurgical research and training. The authors customized an embalming formula that provides an optimal retraction profile and lifelike physical properties while preventing microorganism growth and brain decay for neurosurgical simulations in cadavers. They studied the properties of the customized formula and compared its use with the standard postmortem processing techniques: cryopreservation and formaldehyde-based embalming.
Eighteen specimens were prepared for neurosurgical simulation: 6 formaldehyde embalmed, 6 cryopreserved, and 6 custom embalmed. The customized formula is a mixture of ethanol 62.4%, glycerol 17%, phenol 10.2%, formaldehyde 2.3%, and water 8.1%. After a standard pterional craniotomy, retraction profiles and brain stiffness were studied using an intracranial pressure transducer and monitor. Preservation time—that is, time that tissue remained in optimal condition—between specimen groups was also compared through periodical reports during a 48-hour simulation.
The mean (± standard deviation) retraction pressures were highest in the formaldehyde group and lowest in the cryopreserved group. The customized formula provided a mean retraction pressure almost 3 times lower than formaldehyde (36 ± 3 vs 103 ± 14 mm Hg, p < 0.01) and very similar to cryopreservation (24 ± 6 mm Hg, p < 0.01). For research purposes, preservation time in the cryopreserved group was limited to 4 hours and was unlimited for the customized and formaldehyde groups for the duration of the experiment.
The customized embalming solution described herein is optimal for allowing retraction and surgical maneuverability while preventing decay. The authors were able to significantly lower the formaldehyde content as compared with that in standard formulas. The custom embalming solution has the benefits from both cryopreservation (for example, biological brain tissue properties) and formaldehyde embalming (for example, preservation time and microorganism growth prevention) and minimizes their drawbacks, that is, rapid decay in the former and stiffness in the latter. The presented embalming formula provides an important advance for neurosurgical simulations in research and teaching.
Arnau Benet, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, Jose Juan González Sánchez, Michael T. Lawton and Mitchel S. Berger
Transcortical and transsylvian corridors have been previously described as the main surgical approaches to the insula, but there is insufficient evidence to support one approach versus the other. The authors performed a cadaveric comparative study regarding insular exposure, surgical window and freedom, between the transcortical and transsylvian approaches (with and without cutting superficial sylvian bridging veins). Surgical anatomy and skull surface reference points to the different insular regions are also described.
Sixteen cadaveric specimens were embalmed with a customized formula to enhance neurosurgical simulation. Two different blocks were defined in the study: first, transsylvian without (TS) and with the superficial sylvian bridging veins cut (TSVC) and transcortical (TC) approaches to the insula were simulated in all (16) specimens. Insular surface exposure, surgical window and surgical freedom were calculated for each procedure and related to the Berger-Sanai insular glioma classification (Zones I–IV) in 10 specimens. Second, the venous drainage pattern and anatomical landmarks considered critical for surgical planning were studied in all specimens.
In the insular Zone I (anterior-superior), the TC approach provided the best insular exposure compared with both TS and TSVC. The surgical window obtained with the TC approach was also larger than that obtained with the TS. The TC approach provided 137% more surgical freedom than the TS approach. Only the TC corridor provided complete insular exposure. In Zone II (posterior-superior), results depended on the degree of opercular resection. Without resection of the precentral gyrus in the operculum, insula exposure, surgical windows and surgical freedom were equivalent. If the opercular cortex was resected, the insula exposure and surgical freedom obtained through the TC approach was greater to that of the other groups. In Zone III (posterior-inferior), the TC approach provided better surgical exposure than the TS, yet similar to the TSVC. The TC approach provided the best insular exposure, surgical window, and surgical freedom if components of Heschl’s gyrus were resected. In Zone IV (anterior-inferior), the TC corridor provided better exposure than both the TS and the TSVC. The surgical window was equivalent. Surgical freedom provided by the TC was greater than the TS approach. This zone was completely exposed only with the TC approach. A dominant anterior venous drainage was found in 87% of the specimens. In this group, 50% of the specimens had good alternative venous drainage. The sylvian fissure corresponded to the superior segment of the squamosal suture in 14 of 16 specimens. The foramen of Monro was 1.9 cm anterior and 4.42 cm superior to the external acoustic meatus. The M2 branch over the central sulcus of the insula became the precentral M4 (rolandic) artery in all specimens.
Overall, the TC approach to the insula provided better insula exposure and surgical freedom compared with the TS and the TSVC. Cortical and subcortical mapping is critical during the TC approach to the posterior zones (II and III), as the facial motor and somatosensory functions (Zone II) and language areas (Zone III) may be involved. The evidence provided in this study may help the neurosurgeon when approaching insular gliomas to achieve a greater extent of tumor resection via an optimal exposure.
Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Wendy Huang, Arnau Benet, Olivia Kola and Michael T. Lawton
Management of complex aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) can be challenging. Lesions not amenable to endovascular techniques or direct clipping might require a bypass procedure with aneurysm obliteration. Various bypass techniques are available, but an algorithmic approach to classifying these lesions and determining the optimal bypass strategy has not been developed. The objective of this study was to propose a comprehensive and flexible algorithm based on MCA aneurysm location for selecting the best of multiple bypass options.
Aneurysms of the MCA that required bypass as part of treatment were identified from a large prospectively maintained database of vascular neurosurgeries. According to its location relative to the bifurcation, each aneurysm was classified as a prebifurcation, bifurcation, or postbifurcation aneurysm.
Between 1998 and 2015, 30 patients were treated for 30 complex MCA aneurysms in 8 (27%) prebifurcation, 5 (17%) bifurcation, and 17 (56%) postbifurcation locations. Bypasses included 8 superficial temporal artery–MCA bypasses, 4 high-flow extracranial-to-intracranial (EC-IC) bypasses, 13 IC-IC bypasses (6 reanastomoses, 3 reimplantations, 3 interpositional grafts, and 1 in situ bypass), and 5 combination bypasses. The bypass strategy for prebifurcation aneurysms was determined by the involvement of lenticulostriate arteries, whereas the bypass strategy for bifurcation aneurysms was determined by rupture status. The location of the MCA aneurysm in the candelabra (Sylvian, insular, or opercular) determined the bypass strategy for postbifurcation aneurysms. No deaths that resulted from surgery were found, bypass patency was 90%, and the condition of 90% of the patients was improved or unchanged at the most recent follow-up.
The bypass strategy used for an MCA aneurysm depends on the aneurysm location, lenticulostriate anatomy, and rupture status. A uniform bypass strategy for all MCA aneurysms does not exist, but the algorithm proposed here might guide selection of the optimal EC-IC or IC-IC bypass technique.
Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, Jing Li, Joseph A. Osorio, Darryl Lau, Annette M. Molinaro, Arnau Benet and Mitchel S. Berger
Though challenging, maximal safe resection of insular gliomas enhances overall and progression-free survival and deters malignant transformation. Previously published reports have shown that surgery can be performed with low morbidity. The authors previously described a Berger-Sanai zone classification system for insular gliomas. Using a subsequent dataset, they undertook this study to validate this zone classification system for predictability of extent of resection (EOR) in patients with insular gliomas.
The study population included adults who had undergone resection of WHO Grade II, III, or IV insular gliomas. In accordance with our prior published report, tumor location was classified according to the Berger-Sanai quadrant-style classification system into Zones I through IV. Interobserver variability was analyzed using a cohort of newly diagnosed insular gliomas and independent classification scores given by 3 neurosurgeons at various career stages. Glioma volumes were analyzed using FLAIR and T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR images.
One hundred twenty-nine procedures involving 114 consecutive patients were identified. The study population from the authors’ previously published experience included 115 procedures involving 104 patients. Thus, the total experience included 244 procedures involving 218 patients with insular gliomas treated at the authors’ institution. The most common presenting symptoms were seizure (68.2%) and asymptomatic recurrence (17.8%). WHO Grade II glioma histology was the most common (54.3%), followed by Grades III (34.1%) and IV (11.6%). The median tumor volume was 48.5 cm3. The majority of insular gliomas were located in the anterior portion of the insula with 31.0% in Zone I, 10.9% in Zone IV, and 16.3% in Zones I+IV. The Berger-Sanai zone classification system was highly reliable, with a kappa coefficient of 0.857. The median EOR for all zones was 85%. Comparison of EOR between the current and prior series showed no change and Zone I gliomas continue to have the highest median EOR. Short- and long-term neurological complications remain low, and zone classification correlated with short-term complications, which were highest in Zone I and in Giant insular gliomas.
The previously proposed Berger-Sanai classification system is highly reliable and predictive of insular glioma EOR and morbidity.
Brian P. Walcott, Jae Seung Bang, Omar Choudhri, Sirin Gandhi, Halima Tabani, Arnau Benet and Michael T. Lawton
A 46-year-old male presented with an incidentally discovered left ventricular body arteriovenous malformation (AVM). It measured 2 cm in diameter and had drainage via an atrial vein into the internal cerebral vein (Spetzler-Martin Grade III, Supplementary Grade 4). Preoperative embolization of the posterior medial choroidal artery reduced nidus size by 50%. Subsequently, he underwent a right-sided craniotomy for a contralateral transcallosal approach to resect the AVM. This case demonstrates strategic circumferential disconnection of feeding arteries (FAs) to the nidus, the use of aneurysm clips to control large FAs, and the use of dynamic retraction and importance of a generous callosotomy. Postoperatively, he was neurologically intact, and angiogram confirmed complete resection.
The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/j0778LfS3MI.