✓ The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of endovascular treatment for intracranial mycotic aneurysms. The clinical and angiographic features of three patients with endocarditic vegetation (two with Streptococcus viridans and one with Staphylococcus) were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were selected for this treatment according to the clinical setting and aneurysm location. In two cases, selective catheterization of a distal middle cerebral and posterior cerebral artery branch with a microcatheter followed by superselective amobarbital testing of the parent vessel was preliminary to the occlusion of that vessel with autologous clot or glue. The third patient was treated by selective occlusion of the aneurysm by intra-aneurysmal placement of platinum minicoils. Two patients presented with intracranial hemorrhage and in one the lesion was found on computerized tomography. All three aneurysms had been excluded from the circulation at the 6-month follow-up review. The only complication from the procedure, despite the septic nature and distal localization, was balloon deflation in one patient, who was successfully retreated with coils. Endovascular embolization is indicated in patients who are at risk of hemorrhage and cannot undergo the standard procedure. The superselective amobarbital test allows selection of patients who will tolerate distal vessel occlusion. This endovascular procedure represents a safe and effective treatment for these lesions.
Report of three cases
Mazen H. Khayata, Armand Aymard, Alfredo Casasco, Denis Herbreteau, France Woimant, and Jean Jacques Merland
Guilherme S. Mourao, Jonathan E. Hodes, Y. Pierre Gobin, Alfredo Casasco, Armand Aymard, and Jean Jacques Merland
✓ Three cases of direct arteriovenous fistulas of the scalp (two involving cirsoid aneurysms) are presented. All three patients were treated with direct puncture of the venous pouch and injection of absolute ethyl alcohol during compression of the venous outflow of the fistula. Two of the three patients were cured with this treatment alone. The third patient, with a very high-flow giant fistula, required injection of glue to close the fistula and subsequent surgical extirpation of the resulting hard mass lesion.
Armand Aymard, Y. Pierre Gobin, Jonathan E. Hodes, Siegfried Bien, Daniel Rüfenacht, Daniel Reizine, Bernard George, and Jean J. Merland
✓ Twenty-one patients with aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar circulation underwent unilateral or bilateral endovascular occlusion of the vertebral artery. Six patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), 10 with mass effect, four with mass effect and SAH, and one with ischemic symptoms. Thirteen patients had good outcomes with complete clinical and angiographic cure. Six patients had partial thrombosis of their aneurysms. There was one death and one treatment failure. One patient suffered transient stroke. It is concluded that endovascular occlusion of the vertebral artery following test occlusion is a safe and effective treatment for proximal aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar circulation.
Alfredo E. Casasco, Armand Aymard, Y. Pierre Gobin, Emmanuel Houdart, André Rogopoulos, Bernard George, Jonathan E. Hodes, Jean Cophignon, and Jean Jacques Merland
✓ Seventy-one intracranial aneurysms were treated by endovascular techniques, with the placement of minicoils inside the aneurysmal sac. Most aneurysms were manifest by hemorrhage (67 cases), and 43 of these were treated within the first 3 days after presentation. At the 1-year follow-up examination, the outcome was scored as good in 84.5% of cases, but the morbidity and mortality rates were 4.2% and 11.3%, respectively. Twenty-nine aneurysms in the anterior circulation and 42 in the posterior circulation were treated. In this series, 23 patients were classified as Hunt and Hess neurological Grade I, 27 as Grade II, 12 as Grade III, nine as Grade IV, and none as Grade V. Thirty-three aneurysms were less than 10 mm in diameter, 28 were 10 to 25 mm, and 10 were larger than 25 mm. The preliminary results from this study appear to justify the emergency treatment of aneurysms by this approach. Aneurysms in the posterior circulation are particularly well suited for this type of surgery.
Jonathan E. Hodes, Armand Aymard, Y. Pierre Gobin, Daniel Rüfenacht, Siegfried Bien, Daniel Reizine, André Gaston, and Jean Jacques Merland
✓ Among 121 intracerebral aneurysms presenting at one institution between 1984 and 1989, 16 were treated by endovascular means. All 16 lesions were intradural and intracranial, and had failed either surgical or endovascular attempts at selective exclusion with parent vessel preservation. The lesions included four giant middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms, one giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm, six giant posterior cerebral artery aneurysms, one posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm, one giant mid-basilar artery aneurysm, two giant fusiform basilar artery aneurysms, and one dissecting vertebral artery aneurysm. One of the 16 patients failed an MCA test occlusion and was approached surgically after attempted endovascular selective occlusion. Treatment involved pretreatment evaluation of cerebral blood flow followed by a preliminary parent vessel test occlusion under neuroleptic analgesia with vigilant neurological monitoring. If the test occlusion was tolerated, it was immediately followed by permanent occlusion of the parent vessel with either detachable or nondetachable balloon or coils.
The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 8 years. Excellent outcomes were obtained in 12 cases with complete angiographic obliteration of the aneurysm and no new neurological deficits and/or improvement of the pre-embolization symptoms. Four patients died: two related to the procedure, one secondary to rupture of another untreated aneurysm, and the fourth from a postoperative MCA thrombosis after having failed endovascular test occlusion. The angiographic, clinical, and cerebral blood flow criteria for occlusion tolerance are discussed.
Y. Pierre Gobin, Andre Rogopoulos, Armand Aymard, Mazen Khayata, Daniel Reizine, Jacques Chiras, and Jean-Jacques Merland
✓ Intracranial dural arteriovenous (AV) fistulas with spinal perimedullary venous drainage are rare lesions that have distinctive clinical, radiological, and therapeutic aspects. Five patients presented with an ascending myelopathy, which extended to involve the brain stem in three cases. Myelography and magnetic resonance imaging showed slightly dilated spinal perimedullary vessels. Spinal angiograms were normal in the arterial phase. Diagnosis was only possible after cerebral angiography, which demonstrated posterior fossa AV fistulas fed by meningeal arteries and draining into spinal perimedullary veins. Endovascular treatment alone resulted in angiographic obliteration of the lesion in three patients. Two patients required surgery in addition to endovascular therapy. One patient died postoperatively, and in one a transient complication of embolization was observed. Improvement after treatment was good in two cases and fair in two. Transverse sinus thrombosis was observed in three cases and was probably the cause of the aberrant venous drainage of the fistula into the spinal perimedullary veins. The pathophysiology is related to spinal cord venous hypertension. These lesions were classified as Type 5 in the Djindjian and Merland classification of dural intracranial AV fistulas. Endovascular therapy is a safe effective method in the treatment of these fistulas and should be tried first.
Alexis Guédon, Jean-Pierre Saint-Maurice, Cédric Thépenier, Marc-Antoine Labeyrie, Vittorio Civelli, Carine El Sissy, Michael Eliezer, Armand Aymard, Jean-Pierre Guichard, and Emmanuel Houdart
Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is mainly treated with an endovascular approach. Two major treatment advances include transvenous embolization (TVE) with coils in 1989 and, more recently, transarterial embolization with Onyx. The aim of this study was to present a large monocentric series of patients with DAVF treated with TVE. This series reports more than 20 years of experience and describes the evolution of the medical management of these patients, as well as current indications for this treatment at the authors’ center.
Consecutive patients treated for intracranial DAVFs with TVE from 1995 to 2018 were included. Clinical and imaging data were systematically collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors that were significantly associated with adverse clinical course or complications.
In this study of 136 patients with 142 DAVFs treated with TVE, the occlusion rate was 90%. The median length of follow-up was 11 months. The rate of permanent complications was 5.1%, and the procedure-related mortality rate was 1.5%. Procedure-related mortality was associated with extension of thrombosis that was observed early in our experience. The introduction of a postoperative anticoagulation regimen has drastically decreased the occurrence of this complication. Other minor complications included cochleovestibular syndrome after embolization of lateral sinus DAVF and oculomotor nerve damage after embolization of cavernous sinus DAVF.
TVE allows efficient occlusion of DAVF. It remains a valid option for DAVF located on a sinus that does not participate in normal venous drainage of the brain.
Y. Pierre Gobin, Alexandre Laurent, Louis Merienne, Maurice Schlienger, Armand Aymard, Emmanuel Houdart, Alfredo Casasco, Dimitri Lefkopoulos, Bernard George, and Jean Jacques Merland
✓ Embolization was used to reduce the size of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) prior to radiosurgical treatment in 125 patients who were poor surgical candidates or had refused surgery. Of these patients, 81% had suffered hemorrhage, and 22.4% had undergone treatment at another institution. According to the Spetzler—Martin scale, the AVMs were Grade II in 9.6%, Grade III in 31.2%, Grade IV in 30.4%, and Grades V to VI in 28.8% of the cases. Most embolizations were performed using cyanoacrylate delivered by flow-guided microcatheters. Radiosurgery was performed using a linear accelerator in 62 patients treated by the authors, and 34 patients were treated at other institutions using various methods. Embolization produced total occlusion in 11.2% of AVMs and reduced 76% of AVMs enough to allow radiosurgery. Radiosurgery produced total occlusion in 65% of the partially embolized AVMs (79% when the residual nidus was < 2 cm in diameter). Embolizations resulted in a mortality rate of 1.6% and a morbidity rate of 12.8%. No complications were associated with radiosurgery. The hemorrhage rate for partially embolized AVMs was 3% per year. No patient with a completely occluded AVM experienced rehemorrhage. Angiographic follow-up review of AVMs embolized with cyanoacrylate demonstrated a 11.8% revascularization rate, occurring within 1 year. It is concluded that after partial embolization with cyanoacrylate, the risk of hemorrhage from the residual nidus is comparable to the natural history of AVMs and that the residual nidus can be irradiated with results almost as good as for a native AVM of the same size.