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Manish N. Shah, Jeffrey R. Leonard and Arie Perry

Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) of the fourth ventricle is a rare, recently described WHO Grade I neoplasm. The authors report 6 examples of RGNT arising primarily from the cerebellar vermis. All the patients were female, and the mean age of presentation was 24.8 years. The original diagnoses included pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymoma, cerebellar dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT), and oligodendroglioma. The cases showed classic pathological characteristics, although in 2 cases the lesions included DNT-like “floating neurons” involving Purkinje cells, a feature which has not been previously reported to the authors' knowledge. The clinical outcome was excellent with no recurrences after complete resection. These cases expand the known clinical and histological spectrum of this rare tumor type. Given the lack of fourth ventricle involvement in most of these cases, the authors suggest revising the name to RGNT of the posterior fossa.

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Thomas Jiang, Arie Perry, Ralph G. Dacey Jr., Gregory J. Zipfel and Colin P. Derdeyn

Atherosclerotic disease has been suspected as a cause of moyamoya disease in some patients but has not, to the authors' knowledge, been confirmed by pathological studies. The authors present the histopathological findings in a patient with moyamoya collateral formation associated with atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the distal internal carotid artery (ICA). Typical atheromatous changes were evident in the distal ICA and proximal middle cerebral artery. In addition, intimal thickening, fibrosis, and abnormal internal elastic lamina were present in these vessels. These findings are common in moyamoya but not in atherosclerotic disease. Proliferation and enlargement of the lenticulostriate arteries in the basal ganglia was also identified. Moyamoya phenomenon secondary to atherosclerotic disease has similar histopathological features to idiopathic moyamoya phenomenon, both in the affected large basal arteries and lenticulostriate collaterals. These findings support the hypothesis advanced by Peerless that moyamoya is a 2-step process involving an obliterative vasculopathy of the terminal ICA and a secondary proliferative response.

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Martin J. Rutkowski, Harjus S. Birk, Matthew D. Wood, Arie Perry, Theodore Nicolaides, Christopher P. Ames and Nalin Gupta

The authors report the case of a 5-year-old boy in whom extraneural metastases developed 5 years after he underwent an occipitocervical fusion and transoral approach to treat a clival chordoma without local recurrence. Following primary resection, the patient's postoperative course was complicated by recurrent meningitis secondary to CSF leak, which responded to antibiotics, and communicating hydrocephalus, for which a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed. The patient then underwent postoperative proton beam radiotherapy. Five years following his initial presentation, surveillance imaging revealed a new asymptomatic lung mass for which the patient underwent thoracotomy and resection of the mass. Histological examination of the lung mass revealed findings consistent with a de-differentiated chordoma, confirming extraneural metastasis from the original tumor without evidence of local recurrence. Chest wall and scalp metastases subsequently developed, and the patient was started on an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen that included imatinib and rapamycin followed by subsequent nivolumab and an EZH2 inhibitor for recurrent, disseminated disease. Despite this patient's remote and distant metastases, primary gross-total resection for chordoma remains a critical treatment objective, followed by proton beam radiotherapy. This case illustrates the importance of interval posttreatment imaging and the emerging potential to treat chordoma with molecularly targeted therapies.

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Jeffrey R. Leonard, Dan X. Cai, Dennis J. Rivet, Bruce A. Kaufman, T. S. Park, Beth K. Levy and Arie Perry

Object. Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant central nervous system neoplasm found in children. A distinct variant designated large cell/anaplastic (LC/A) medulloblastoma is characterized by frequent dissemination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at presentation and a more aggressive clinical course. The authors report on their examination of the clinicopathological and genetic features of seven such cases encountered at their institution.

Methods. Eighty cases of medulloblastomas were reviewed and seven (8.8%) of these were believed to fit the histological and immunohistochemical criteria for LC/A medulloblastoma. In three cases (43%) either desmoplastic or classic medulloblastoma was the underlying subtype, and in two cases (28%) the LC/A tumor was found within the setting of medullomyoblastoma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used in six of the seven cases to characterize the presence of isochromosome 17q, deletion of chromosome 22q (a deletion characteristically found in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors), and c-myc amplification. The patients' clinical histories revealed CSF dissemination in all cases and lymph node metastasis in one case. Isochromosome 17q was found in five (83%) of six cases. Evidence of chromosomal gains indicated aneuploidy in three tumors (50%), and amplification of c-myc was found in three tumors (50%). No 22q deletions were encountered.

Conclusions. A high percentage of LC/A medulloblastomas arise within a background of typical medulloblastomas or medullomyoblastomas. As is the case in conventional medulloblastomas, the presence of 17q is a common early tumorigenic event; however, in a significant percentage of specimens there is also evidence of aneuploidy and/or amplification of c-myc. These findings indicate that LC/A morphological characteristics reflect a more advanced tumor stage than that found in pure medulloblastomas or in typical medullomyoblastomas.

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Robert J. Spinner, Bernd W. Scheithauer, Arie Perry, Kimberly K. Amrami, Ryan Emnett and David H. Gutmann

✓ The authors report on a patient without neurofibromatosis Type 1 or 2 (NF1 or NF2) and without evidence of schwannomatosis, who was found to have an unusual combination of nerve sheath tumors—a large cellular schwannoma and multifascicular involvement of a plexiform neurofibroma arising from the same site within the radial nerve and posterior cord of the infraclavicular brachial plexus. This case broadens the spectrum of combined pathological features of nerve sheath tumors. Genetic studies revealed a combined loss of neurofibromin and merlin in both regions and chromosome arm 22q deletion within the neurofibroma component only. The latter finding supports the suggestion that these were two different clonal neoplasms, and is consistent with a collision tumor pattern.

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Incidental pediatric intraparenchymal xanthogranuloma

Case report and review of the literature

William W. Ashley Jr., Prithvi Narayan, Tae Sung Park, Pang-hsien Tu, Arie Perry and Jeffrey R. Leonard

✓Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a specialized form of non—Langerhans cell histiocyte proliferation that occurs in children. The majority of cases present as a solitary cutaneous lesion with a predilection for the head and neck region; however, isolated lesions occasionally have been identified in the central nervous system. The cutaneous forms of JXG usually follow a benign course. Other physicians have reported surgery as the first line of treatment in symptomatic patients with accessible lesions. Adjuvant therapies may be indicated for multicentric or surgically inaccessible lesions. The authors describe an unusual case of isolated intraparenchymal JXG in an asymptomatic child with no cutaneous manifestations and provide a review of the literature.

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Dan X. Cai, Manuela Mafra, Robert E. Schmidt, Bernd W. Scheithauer, Tae Sung Park and Arie Perry

✓ The authors report on two patients with classic medulloblastoma, each of whom underwent extensive therapy-associated neuronal maturation. The first patient presented at 3 months of age with hydrocephalus caused by a 5-cm tumor in the cerebellar vermis. He underwent a gross-total resection of a desmoplastic medulloblastoma. No mature elements were identified. Despite adjuvant chemotherapy, a 1.5-cm recurrent tumor developed 6 months later. Sections from the subtotally resected tumor demonstrated exclusively mature neuronal elements, ranging from neurocytes to ganglion cells. Four months later, a second recurrent tumor was resected. The specimen collected this time demonstrated classic medulloblastoma morphological characteristics. The patient was subsequently treated with radiation therapy, which seemed to have an effect; however, the tumor eventually progressed and the patient died. The second patient presented at 3 years of age with a midline medulloblastoma and was treated with subtotal resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Although the tumor remained stable on radiographic imaging, a second resection was performed 8 years later to alleviate hydrocephalus. Histological examination revealed predominantly small mature neurons with scattered ganglion cells and extensive calcification. No adjuvant therapy was given and the patient is alive and well as of his last follow-up examination.

The mature neuronal neoplasms resected in both patients demonstrated negligible proliferative indices and stained appropriately with neuronal immunohistochemical markers. The smaller neuronal population resembled those of a central neurocytoma and medullocytoma/cerebellar neurocytoma. Analogous to neuroblastoma, our cases suggest that adjuvant therapy can induce extensive or complete neuronal maturation in medulloblastoma. Additional cases must be studied to determine the prognostic significance of this rare phenomenon.

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Sergei I. Bannykh, Arie Perry, Henry C. Powell, Ashley Hill and Lawrence A. Hansen

✓ A highly malignant brain neoplasm with rhabdoid morphological features emerged in the bed of a subtotally resected ganglioglioma in a 54-year-old retired nuclear submarine officer. A combined application of neuroimaging, immunohistochemical studies, electron microscopy, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to establish the morphological identity of the tumor. The rhabdoid appearance of the tumor cells indicated either an especially malignant variant of rhabdoid meningioma or an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor with an unusually late onset. Whereas immunohistochemical studies and electron microscopy could only be used to narrow down the differential diagnosis, FISH revealed loss of one copy of NF2 with preservation of the INI1 region on 22q, thus establishing the identity of the tumor.

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Melissa Frei-Jones, Robert C. McKinstry, Arie Perry, Jeffrey R. Leonard, Tae Sung Park and Joshua B. Rubin

Infantile or capillary hemangioma is the most common vascular tumor of childhood. The tumors most frequently affect the head and neck area, but rare cases of intracranial lesions have been reported. Their natural history is marked by initial rapid growth velocity followed by a plateau and, in most cases, subsequent involution. Although the lesions are considered benign, 10% of affected children develop life-threatening complications (mortality rate 20–80% in this subgroup). When surgical intervention or other methods of local control are not possible, therapeutic options are limited. Corticosteroids have been the mainstay of therapy but therapeutic response is not predictable and the infectious risk is not negligible. Interferon α-2a may also be effective but has significant toxicities.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hemangiomas, and antiangiogenesis agents are being evaluated in the treatment of these tumors. Thalidomide may be an ideal therapy for life-threatening hemangiomas because it inhibits new blood vessel formation by antagonizing both the bFGF and VEGF pathways and has a more acceptable toxicity profile than other agents. The authors present the case of an infant born with a life-threatening, unresectable intracranial hemangioma in which treatment with thalidomide resulted in a good clinical outcome.

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William C. Chen, Stephen T. Magill, Ashley Wu, Harish N. Vasudevan, Olivier Morin, Manish K. Aghi, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Arie Perry, Michael W. McDermott, Penny K. Sneed, Steve E. Braunstein and David R. Raleigh

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) on local recurrence and overall survival in patients undergoing primary resection of atypical meningioma, and to identify predictive factors to inform patient selection for adjuvant RT.

METHODS

One hundred eighty-two patients who underwent primary resection of atypical meningioma at a single institution between 1993 and 2014 were retrospectively identified. Patient, meningioma, and treatment data were extracted from the medical record and compared using the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank tests, multivariate analysis (MVA) Cox proportional hazards models with relative risk (RR), and recursive partitioning analysis.

RESULTS

The median patient age and imaging follow-up were 57 years (interquartile range [IQR] 45–67 years) and 4.4 years (IQR 1.8–7.5 years), respectively. Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 114 cases (63%), and 42 patients (23%) received adjuvant RT. On MVA, prognostic factors for death from any cause included GTR (RR 0.4, 95% CI 0.1–0.9, p = 0.02) and MIB1 labeling index (LI) ≤ 7% (RR 0.4, 95% CI 0.1–0.9, p = 0.04). Prognostic factors on MVA for local progression included GTR (RR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1–0.5, p = 0.002), adjuvant RT (RR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1–0.4, p < 0.001), MIB1 LI ≤ 7% (RR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1–0.5, p < 0.001), and a remote history of prior cranial RT (RR 5.7, 95% CI 1.3–18.8, p = 0.03). After GTR, adjuvant RT (0 of 10 meningiomas recurred, p = 0.01) and MIB1 LI ≤ 7% (RR 0.1, 95% CI 0.003–0.3, p < 0.001) were predictive for local progression on MVA. After GTR, 2.2% of meningiomas with MIB1 LI ≤ 7% recurred (1 of 45), compared with 38% with MIB1 LI > 7% (13 of 34; p < 0.001). Recursive partitioning analysis confirmed the existence of a cohort of patients at high risk of local progression after GTR without adjuvant RT, with MIB1 LI > 7%, and evidence of brain or bone invasion. After subtotal resection, adjuvant RT (RR 0.2, 95% CI 0.04–0.7, p = 0.009) and ≤ 5 mitoses per 10 hpf (RR 0.1, 95% CI 0.03–0.4, p = 0.002) were predictive on MVA for local progression.

CONCLUSIONS

Adjuvant RT improves local control of atypical meningioma irrespective of extent of resection. Although independent validation is required, the authors’ results suggest that MIB1 LI, the number of mitoses per 10 hpf, and brain or bone invasion may be useful guides to the selection of patients who are most likely to benefit from adjuvant RT after resection of atypical meningioma.