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Shih-Shan Lang, Joel A. Bauman, Michael W. Aversano, Matthew R. Sanborn, Arastoo Vossough, Gregory G. Heuer and Phillip B. Storm

Object

Electrolyte and endocrinological complications of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) are infrequent but serious events, likely due to transient hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. While the incidence of diabetes insipidus is relatively well known, hyponatremia is not often reported. The authors report on a series of 5 patients with post-ETV hyponatremia.

Methods

The records of patients undergoing ETV between 2008 and 2010 were reviewed. All ETVs were performed with a rigid neuroendoscope via a frontal bur hole, standard third ventricle floor blunt perforation, Fogarty catheter dilation, and intermittent normal saline irrigation. Postoperative MR images were evaluated for endoscope tract injury as well as the trajectory from the bur hole center to the fenestration site.

Results

Thirty-two patients (20 male and 12 female) underwent ETV. Their median age was 6 years (range 3 weeks–28 years). Hydrocephalus was most commonly due to nontumoral aqueductal stenosis (43%), nontectal tumor (25%), or tectal glioma (13%). Five patients (16%) had multicystic/loculated hydrocephalus. Five patients (16%) developed hyponatremia between 1 and 8 days following ETV, including 2 patients with seizures (1 of whom was still hospitalized at the time of the seizure and 1 of whom was readmitted as a result of the seizure) and 3 patients who were readmitted because of decline in their condition following routine discharge. No hypothalamic injuries were noted on imaging. Univariate risk factors consisted of age of 2 years or less (p = 0.02), presence of cystic lesions (p = 0.02), and ETV trajectory angle 10° or more from perpendicular (p = 0.001).

Conclusions

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is a well-tolerated procedure but can result in serious complications. Hyponatremia is rare and may be more likely in younger patients or those with cystic loculations. Patients with altered craniometry may be at particular risk with a rigid endoscopic approach requiring greater manipulation of subforniceal or hypothalamic structures.

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Shih-Shan Lang, Lauren A. Beslow, Robert L. Bailey, Arastoo Vossough, Joanna Ekstrom, Gregory G. Heuer and Phillip B. Storm

Object

The true postoperative incidence of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) recurrence in the pediatric population remains largely unreported. Some literature suggests that delayed imaging studies should be obtained at 6 months to 1 year after negative findings on a postoperative angiogram. The aim of this study was to describe the timing of AVM recurrences after resection and the neuroimaging modalities on which the recurrences were detected.

Methods

This study was performed in a retrospective cohort of all pediatric patients treated surgically for AVM resection by a single neurosurgeon between 2005 and 2010. Patients were followed after resection with MR angiography (MRA) or conventional angiography, when possible, at various time points. A visual scale for compactness of the initial AVM nidus was used, and the score was correlated with probability of recurrence after surgery.

Results

A total of 28 patients (13 female, 15 male) underwent an AVM resection. In 18 patients (64.3%) an intraoperative angiogram was obtained. In 4 cases the intraoperative angiogram revealed residual AVM, and repeat resections were performed immediately. Recurrent AVMs were found in 4 children (14.3%) at 50, 51, 56, and 60 weeks after the initial resection. Recurrence risk was 0.08 per person-year. No patient with normal results on an angiogram obtained at 1 year developed a recurrence on either a 5-year angiogram or one obtained at 18 years of age. All patients with recurrence had a compactness score of 1 (diffuse AVM); a lower compactness score was associated with recurrence (p = 0.0003).

Conclusions

All recurrences in this cohort occurred less than 15 months from the initial resection. The authors recommend intraoperative angiography to help ensure complete resection at the time of the surgery. Follow-up vascular imaging is crucial for detecting recurrent AVMs, and conventional angiography is preferred because MRA can miss smaller AVMs. One-year follow-up imaging detected these recurrences, and no one who had negative results on an angiogram obtained at 1 year had a late recurrence. However, not all of the patients have been followed for 5 years or until 18 years of age, so longer follow-up is required for these patients. A lower compactness score predicted recurrent AVM in this cohort.

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Fabio A. Frisoli, Shih-Shan Lang, Arastoo Vossough, Anne Marie Cahill, Gregory G. Heuer, Hisham M. Dahmoush, Phillip B. Storm and Lauren A. Beslow

Object

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) have a higher postresection recurrence rate in children than in adults. The authors' previous study demonstrated that a diffuse AVM (low compactness score) predicts postresection recurrence. The aims of this study were to evaluate the intra- and interrater reliability of the AVM compactness score.

Methods

Angiograms of 24 patients assigned a preoperative compactness score (scale of 1–3; 1 = most diffuse, 3 = most compact) in the authors' previous study were rerated by the same pediatric neuroradiologist 9 months later. A pediatric neurosurgeon, pediatric neuroradiology fellow, and interventional radiologist blinded to each other's ratings, the original ratings, and AVM recurrence also rated each AVM's compactness. Intrarater and interrater reliability were calculated using the κ statistic.

Results

Of the 24 AVMs, scores by the original neuroradiologist were 1 in 6 patients, 2 in 16 patients, and 3 in 2 patients. Intrarater reliability was 1.0. The κ statistic among the 4 raters was 0.69 (95% CI 0.44–0.89), which indicates substantial reliability. The interrater reliability between the neuroradiologist and neuroradiology fellow was moderate (κ = 0.59 [95%CI 0.20–0.89]) and was substantial between the neuroradiologist and neurosurgeon (κ = 0.74 [95% CI 0.41–1.0]). The neuroradiologist and interventional radiologist had perfect agreement (κ = 1.0).

Conclusions

Intrarater and interrater reliability of the AVM compactness score were excellent and substantial, respectively. These results demonstrate that the AVM compactness score is reproducible. However, the neuroradiologist and interventional radiologist had perfect agreement, which indicates that the compactness score is applied most accurately by those with extensive angiography experience.

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Peter J. Madsen, Vivek P. Buch, Jennifer E. Douglas, Arjun K. Parasher, David K. Lerner, Erin Alexander, Alan D. Workman, James N. Palmer, Shih-Shan Lang, Benjamin C. Kennedy, Arastoo Vossough, Nithin D. Adappa and Phillip B. Storm

OBJECTIVE

Craniopharyngioma represents up to 10% of pediatric brain tumors. Although these lesions are benign, attempts at gross-total resection (GTR) can lead to serious complications. More conservative approaches have emerged but require adjuvant radiation. Endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) aimed at GTR has the potential to result in fewer complications, but there has been limited comparison to open surgery. The authors performed a review of these two approaches within their institution to elucidate potential benefits and complication differences.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of pediatric patients undergoing resection of craniopharyngioma at their institution between 2001 and 2017. Volumetric analysis of tumor size and postoperative ischemic injury was performed. Charts were reviewed for a number of outcome measures.

RESULTS

A total of 43 patients with an average age of 8.2 years were identified. Open surgery was the initial intervention in 15 and EES in 28. EES was performed in patients 3–17 years of age. EES has been the only approach used since 2011. In the entire cohort, GTR was more common in the EES group (85.7% vs 53.3%, p = 0.03). Recurrence rate (40% vs 14.2%, p = 0.13) and need for adjuvant radiation (20.0% vs 10.7%, p = 0.71) were higher in the open surgical group, although not statistically significant. Pseudoaneurysm development was only observed in the open surgical group. Volumetric imaging analysis showed a trend toward larger preoperative tumor volumes in the open surgical group, so a matched cohort analysis was performed with the largest tumors from the EES group. This revealed no difference in residual tumor volume (p = 0.28), but the volume of postoperative ischemia was still significantly larger in the open group (p = 0.004). Postoperative weight gain was more common in the open surgical group, a statistically significant finding in the complete patient group that trended toward significance in the matched cohort groups. Body mass index at follow-up correlated with volume of ischemic injury in regression analysis of the complete patient cohort (p = 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

EES was associated with similar, if not better, extent of resection and significantly less ischemic injury than open surgery. Pseudoaneurysms were only seen in the open surgical group. Weight gain was also less prevalent in the EES cohort and appears be correlated with extent of ischemic injury at time of surgery.