Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a childhood neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by multiple involuntary motor and vocal tics. It is commonly associated with other behavioral disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, depression, and self-injurious behaviors. Tourette's syndrome can be effectively managed with psychobehavioral and pharmacological treatments, and many patients experience an improvement in tics in adulthood. However, symptoms may persist and cause severe impairment in a small subset of patients despite available therapies. In recent years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be a promising treatment option for such patients. Since the advent of its use in 1999, multiple targets have been identified in DBS for TS, including the medial thalamus, globus pallidus internus, globus pallidus externus, anterior limb of the internal capsule/nucleus accumbens, and subthalamic nucleus. While the medial thalamus is the most commonly reported trajectory, the optimal surgical target for TS is still a topic of much debate. This paper provides a review of the available literature regarding the use of DBS for TS.
Janine Rotsides and Antonios Mammis
Antonios Mammis, Jean Anderson Eloy and James K. Liu
Giants have been a subject of fascination throughout history. Whereas descriptions of giants have existed in the lay literature for millennia, the first attempt at a medical description was published by Johannes Wier in 1567. However, it was Pierre Marie, in 1886, who established the term “acromegaly” for the first time and established a distinct clinical diagnosis with clear clinical descriptions in 2 patients with the characteristic presentation. Multiple autopsy findings revealed a consistent correlation between acromegaly and pituitary enlargement. In 1909, Harvey Cushing postulated a “hormone of growth” as the underlying pathophysiological trigger involved in pituitary hypersecretion in patients with acromegaly. This theory was supported by his observations of clinical remission in patients with acromegaly in whom he had performed hypophysectomy. In this paper, the authors present some of the early accounts of acromegaly and gigantism, and describe its historical evolution as a medical and surgical entity.
Rachid Assina, Christina E. Sarris and Antonios Mammis
Both the history of headache and the practice of craniotomy can be traced to antiquity. From ancient times through the present day, numerous civilizations and scholars have performed craniotomy in attempts to treat headache. Today, surgical intervention for headache management is becoming increasingly more common due to improved technology and greater understanding of headache. By tracing the evolution of the understanding of headache alongside the practice of craniotomy, investigators can better evaluate the mechanisms of headache and the therapeutic treatments used today.
Christopher E. Talbot, Kevin Zhao, Max Ward, Aron Kandinov, Antonios Mammis and Boris Paskhover
Acute injury of the trigeminal nerve or its branches can result in posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PTTN). Affected patients suffer from chronic debilitating symptoms long after they have recovered from the inciting trauma. Symptoms vary but usually consist of paresthesia, allodynia, dysesthesia, hyperalgesia, or a combination of these symptoms. PTTN of the trigeminal nerve can result from a variety of traumas, including iatrogenic injury from various dental and maxillofacial procedures. Treatments include medications, pulsed radiofrequency modulation, and microsurgical repair. Although trigeminal nerve stimulation has been reported for trigeminal neuropathy, V3 implantation is often avoided because of an elevated migration risk secondary to mandibular motion, and lingual nerve implantation has not been documented. Here, the authors report on a patient who suffered from refractory PTTN despite multiple alternative treatments. He elected to undergo novel placement of a lingual nerve stimulator for neuromodulation therapy. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first documented case of lingual nerve stimulator implantation for lingual neuropathy, a technique for potentially reducing the risk of electrode migration.