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Yagiz Ugur Yolcu, Anshit Goyal, Mohammed Ali Alvi, FM Moinuddin and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

Recent studies have reported on the utility of radiosurgery for local control and symptom relief in spinal meningioma. The authors sought to evaluate national utilization trends in radiotherapy (including radiosurgery), investigate possible factors associated with its use in patients with spinal meningioma, and its impact on survival for atypical tumors.

METHODS

Using the ICD-O-3 topographical codes C70.1, C72.0, and C72.1 and histological codes 9530–9535 and 9537–9539, the authors queried the National Cancer Database for patients in whom spinal meningioma had been diagnosed between 2004 and 2015. Patients who had undergone radiation in addition to surgery and those who had received radiation as the only treatment were analyzed for factors associated with each treatment.

RESULTS

From among 10,458 patients with spinal meningioma in the database, the authors found a total of 268 patients who had received any type of radiation. The patients were divided into two main groups for the analysis of radiation alone (137 [51.1%]) and radiation plus surgery (131 [48.9%]). An age > 69 years (p < 0.001), male sex (p = 0.03), and tumor size 5 to < 6 cm (p < 0.001) were found to be associated with significantly higher odds of receiving radiation alone, whereas a Charlson-Deyo Comorbidity Index ≥ 2 (p = 0.01) was associated with significantly lower odds of receiving radiation alone. Moreover, a larger tumor size (2 to < 3 cm, p = 0.01; 3 to < 4 cm, p < 0.001; 4 to < 5 cm, p < 0.001; 5 to < 6 cm, p < 0.001; and ≥ 6 cm, p < 0.001; reference = 1 to < 2 cm), as well as borderline (p < 0.001) and malignant (p < 0.001) tumors were found to be associated with increased odds of undergoing radiation in addition to surgery. Receiving adjuvant radiation conferred a significant reduction in overall mortality among patients with borderline or malignant spinal meningiomas (HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.02–4.1, p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

The current analysis of cases from a national cancer database revealed a small increase in the use of radiation for the management of spinal meningioma without a significant increase in overall survival. Larger tumor size and borderline or malignant behavior were found to be associated with increased radiation use. Data in the present analysis failed to show an overall survival benefit in utilizing adjuvant radiation for atypical tumors.

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Anshit Goyal, Che Ngufor, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Brandon McCutcheon, Curtis Storlie and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

Nonhome discharge and unplanned readmissions represent important cost drivers following spinal fusion. The authors sought to utilize different machine learning algorithms to predict discharge to rehabilitation and unplanned readmissions in patients receiving spinal fusion.

METHODS

The authors queried the 2012–2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) for patients undergoing cervical or lumbar spinal fusion. Outcomes assessed included discharge to nonhome facility and unplanned readmissions within 30 days after surgery. A total of 7 machine learning algorithms were evaluated. Predictive hierarchical clustering of procedure codes was used to increase model performance. Model performance was evaluated using overall accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), as well as sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. These performance metrics were computed for both the imputed and unimputed (missing values dropped) datasets.

RESULTS

A total of 59,145 spinal fusion cases were analyzed. The incidence rates of discharge to nonhome facility and 30-day unplanned readmission were 12.6% and 4.5%, respectively. All classification algorithms showed excellent discrimination (AUC > 0.80, range 0.85–0.87) for predicting nonhome discharge. The generalized linear model showed comparable performance to other machine learning algorithms. By comparison, all models showed poorer predictive performance for unplanned readmission, with AUC ranging between 0.63 and 0.66. Better predictive performance was noted with models using imputed data.

CONCLUSIONS

In an analysis of patients undergoing spinal fusion, multiple machine learning algorithms were found to reliably predict nonhome discharge with modest performance noted for unplanned readmissions. These results provide early evidence regarding the feasibility of modern machine learning classifiers in predicting these outcomes and serve as possible clinical decision support tools to facilitate shared decision making.

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Anshit Goyal, Yagiz U. Yolcu, Aakshit Goyal, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Desmond A. Brown, Christopher S. Graffeo, Sandy Goncalves, Terence C. Burns and Ian F. Parney

OBJECTIVE

With the revised WHO 2016 classification of brain tumors, there has been increasing interest in imaging biomarkers to predict molecular status and improve the yield of genetic testing for diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGGs). The T2-FLAIR–mismatch sign has been suggested to be a highly specific radiographic marker of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutation and 1p/19q codeletion status in diffuse LGGs. The presence of T2-FLAIR mismatch indicates a T2-hyperintense lesion that is hypointense on FLAIR with the exception of a hyperintense rim.

METHODS

In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, we performed a systematic review of the Ovid Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane databases for reports of studies evaluating the diagnostic performance of T2-FLAIR mismatch in predicting the IDH and 1p/19q codeletion status in diffuse LGGs. Results were combined into a 2 × 2 format, and the following diagnostic performance parameters were calculated: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and positive (LR+) and negative (LR−) likelihood ratios. In addition, we utilized Bayes theorem to calculate posttest probabilities as a function of known pretest probabilities from previous genome-wide association studies and the calculated LRs. Calculations were performed for 1) IDH mutation with 1p/19q codeletion (IDHmut-Codel), 2) IDH mutation without 1p/19q codeletion (IDHmut-Noncodel), 3) IDH mutation overall, and 4) 1p/19q codeletion overall. The QUADAS-2 (revised Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) tool was utilized for critical appraisal of included studies.

RESULTS

A total of 4 studies were included, with inclusion of 2 separate cohorts from a study reporting testing and validation (n = 746). From pooled analysis of all cohorts, the following values were obtained for each molecular profile—IDHmut-Codel: sensitivity 30%, specificity 73%, LR+ 1.1, LR− 1.0; IDHmut-Noncodel: sensitivity 33.7%, specificity 98.5%, LR+ 22.5, LR− 0.7; IDH: sensitivity 32%, specificity 100%, LR+ 32.1, LR− 0.7; 1p/19q codeletion: sensitivity 0%, specificity 54%, LR+ 0.01, LR− 1.9. Bayes theorem was used to calculate the following posttest probabilities after a positive and negative result, respectively—IDHmut-Codel: 32.2% and 29.4%; IDHmut-Noncodel: 95% and 40%; IDH: 99.2% and 73.5%; 1p/19q codeletion: 0.4% and 35.1%.

CONCLUSIONS

The T2-FLAIR–mismatch sign was an insensitive but highly specific marker of IDH mutation and IDHmut-Noncodel profile, although significant exceptions may exist to this finding. Tumors with a positive sign may still be IDHwt or 1p/19q codeleted. These findings support the utility of T2-FLAIR mismatch as an imaging-based biomarker for positive selection of patients with IDH-mutant gliomas.

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Sung Huang Laurent Tsai, Anshit Goyal, Mohammed Ali Alvi, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Yagiz Ugur Yolcu, Waseem Wahood, Elizabeth B. Habermann, Terry C. Burns and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

The nature of the volume-outcome relationship in cases with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains unclear, with considerable interhospital variation in patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to understand the state of the volume-outcome relationship at different levels of trauma centers in the United States.

METHODS

The authors queried the National Trauma Data Bank for the years 2007–2014 for patients with severe TBI. Case volumes for each level of trauma center organized into quintiles (Q1–Q5) served as the primary predictor. Analyzed outcomes included in-hospital mortality, total hospital length of stay (LOS), and intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Multivariable regression models were performed for in-hospital mortality, overall complications, and total hospital and ICU LOSs to adjust for possible confounders. The analysis was stratified by level designation of the trauma center. Statistical significance was established at p < 0.001 to avoid a type I error due to a large sample size.

RESULTS

A total of 122,445 patients were included. Adjusted analysis did not demonstrate a significant relationship between increasing hospital volume of severe TBI cases and in-hospital mortality, complications, and nonhome hospital discharge disposition among level I–IV trauma centers. However, among level II trauma centers, hospital LOS was longer for the highest volume quintile (adjusted mean difference [MD] for Q5: 2.83 days, 95% CI 1.40–4.26 days, p < 0.001, reference = Q1). For level III and IV trauma centers, both hospital LOS and ICU LOS were longer for the highest volume quintile (adjusted MD for Q5: LOS 4.6 days, 95% CI 2.3–7.0 days, p < 0.001; ICU LOS 3.2 days, 95% CI 1.6–4.8 days, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Higher volumes of severe TBI cases at a lower level of trauma center may be associated with a longer LOS. These results may assist policymakers with target interventions for resource allocation and point to the need for careful prehospital decision-making in patients with severe TBI.

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Praveen V. Mummaneni, Mohamad Bydon, John Knightly, Mohammed Ali Alvi, Anshit Goyal, Andrew K. Chan, Jian Guan, Michael Biase, Andrea Strauss, Steven Glassman, Kevin T. Foley, Jonathan R. Slotkin, Eric Potts, Mark Shaffrey, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Regis W. Haid Jr., Kai-Ming Fu, Michael Y. Wang, Paul Park, Anthony L. Asher and Erica F. Bisson

OBJECTIVE

Discharge to an inpatient rehabilitation facility or another acute-care facility not only constitutes a postoperative challenge for patients and their care team but also contributes significantly to healthcare costs. In this era of changing dynamics of healthcare payment models in which cost overruns are being increasingly shifted to surgeons and hospitals, it is important to better understand outcomes such as discharge disposition. In the current article, the authors sought to develop a predictive model for factors associated with nonroutine discharge after surgery for grade I spondylolisthesis.

METHODS

The authors queried the Quality Outcomes Database for patients with grade I lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis who underwent a surgical intervention between July 2014 and June 2016. Only those patients enrolled in a multisite study investigating the impact of fusion on clinical and patient-reported outcomes among patients with grade I spondylolisthesis were evaluated. Nonroutine discharge was defined as those who were discharged to a postacute or nonacute-care setting in the same hospital or transferred to another acute-care facility.

RESULTS

Of the 608 patients eligible for inclusion, 9.4% (n = 57) had a nonroutine discharge (8.7%, n = 53 discharged to inpatient postacute or nonacute care in the same hospital and 0.7%, n = 4 transferred to another acute-care facility). Compared to patients who were discharged to home, patients who had a nonroutine discharge were more likely to have diabetes (26.3%, n = 15 vs 15.7%, n = 86, p = 0.039); impaired ambulation (26.3%, n = 15 vs 10.2%, n = 56, p < 0.001); higher Oswestry Disability Index at baseline (51 [IQR 42–62.12] vs 46 [IQR 34.4–58], p = 0.014); lower EuroQol-5D scores (0.437 [IQR 0.308–0.708] vs 0.597 [IQR 0.358–0.708], p = 0.010); higher American Society of Anesthesiologists score (3 or 4: 63.2%, n = 36 vs 36.7%, n = 201, p = 0.002); and longer length of stay (4 days [IQR 3–5] vs 2 days [IQR 1–3], p < 0.001); and were more likely to suffer a complication (14%, n = 8 vs 5.6%, n = 31, p = 0.014). On multivariable logistic regression, factors found to be independently associated with higher odds of nonroutine discharge included older age (interquartile OR 9.14, 95% CI 3.79–22.1, p < 0.001), higher body mass index (interquartile OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.31–3.25, p < 0.001), presence of depression (OR 4.28, 95% CI 1.96–9.35, p < 0.001), fusion surgery compared with decompression alone (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1–1.6, p < 0.001), and any complication (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.4–10.9, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

In this multisite study of a defined cohort of patients undergoing surgery for grade I spondylolisthesis, factors associated with higher odds of nonroutine discharge included older age, higher body mass index, presence of depression, and occurrence of any complication.

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Erica F. Bisson, Praveen V. Mummaneni, John Knightly, Mohammed Ali Alvi, Anshit Goyal, Andrew K. Chan, Jian Guan, Michael Biase, Andrea Strauss, Steven Glassman, Kevin Foley, Jonathan R. Slotkin, Eric Potts, Mark Shaffrey, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Regis W. Haid Jr., Kai-Ming Fu, Michael Y. Wang, Paul Park, Anthony L. Asher and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

Loss to follow-up has been shown to bias outcomes assessment among studies utilizing clinical registries. Here, the authors analyzed patients enrolled in a national surgical registry and compared the baseline characteristics of patients captured with those lost to follow-up at 2 years.

METHODS

The authors queried the Quality Outcomes Database for patients with grade I lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis undergoing a surgical intervention between July 2014 and June 2016. Only those patients enrolled in a multisite study investigating the impact of fusion on clinical and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) among patients with grade I spondylolisthesis were evaluated.

RESULTS

Of the 608 patients enrolled in the study undergoing 1- or 2-level decompression (23.0%, n = 140) or 1-level fusion (77.0%, n = 468), 14.5% (n = 88) were lost to follow-up at 2 years. Patients who were lost to follow-up were more likely to be younger (59.6 ± 13.5 vs 62.6 ± 11.7 years, p = 0.031), be employed (unemployment rate: 53.3% [n = 277] for successful follow-up vs 40.9% [n = 36] for those lost to follow-up, p = 0.017), have anxiety (26.1% [n = 23] vs 16.3% [n = 85], p = 0.026), have higher back pain scores (7.4 ± 2.9 vs 6.6 ± 2.8, p = 0.010), have higher leg pain scores (7.4 ± 2.5 vs 6.4 ± 2.9, p = 0.003), have higher Oswestry Disability Index scores (50.8 ± 18.7 vs 46 ± 16.8, p = 0.018), and have lower EQ-5D scores (0.481 ± 0.2 vs 0.547 ± 0.2, p = 0.012) at baseline.

CONCLUSIONS

To execute future, high-quality studies, it is important to identify patients undergoing surgery for spondylolisthesis who might be lost to follow-up. In a large, prospective registry, the authors found that those lost to follow-up were more likely to be younger, be employed, have anxiety disorder, and have worse PRO scores.

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Erica F. Bisson, Praveen V. Mummaneni, Michael S. Virk, John Knightly, Mohammed Ali Alvi, Anshit Goyal, Andrew K. Chan, Jian Guan, Steven Glassman, Kevin Foley, Jonathan R. Slotkin, Eric A. Potts, Mark E. Shaffrey, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Regis W. Haid Jr., Kai-Ming Fu, Michael Y. Wang, Paul Park, Anthony L. Asher and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

Lumbar decompression without arthrodesis remains a potential treatment option for cases of low-grade spondylolisthesis (i.e., Meyerding grade I). Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques have recently been increasingly used because of their touted benefits including lower operating time, blood loss, and length of stay. Herein, the authors analyzed patients enrolled in a national surgical registry and compared the baseline characteristics and postoperative clinical and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) between patients undergoing open versus MIS lumbar decompression.

METHODS

The authors queried the Quality Outcomes Database for patients with grade I lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis undergoing a surgical intervention between July 2014 and June 2016. Among more than 200 participating sites, the 12 with the highest enrollment of patients into the lumbar spine module came together to initiate a focused project to assess the impact of fusion on PROs in patients undergoing surgery for grade I lumbar spondylolisthesis. For the current study, only patients in this cohort from the 12 highest-enrolling sites who underwent a decompression alone were evaluated and classified as open or MIS (tubular decompression). Outcomes of interest included PROs at 2 years; perioperative outcomes such as blood loss and complications; and postoperative outcomes such as length of stay, discharge disposition, and reoperations.

RESULTS

A total of 140 patients undergoing decompression were selected, of whom 71 (50.7%) underwent MIS and 69 (49.3%) underwent an open decompression. On univariate analysis, the authors observed no significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of PROs at 2-year follow-up, including back pain, leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index score, EQ-5D score, and patient satisfaction. On multivariable analysis, compared to MIS, open decompression was associated with higher satisfaction (OR 7.5, 95% CI 2.41–23.2, p = 0.0005). Patients undergoing MIS decompression had a significantly shorter length of stay compared to the open group (0.68 days [SD 1.18] vs 1.83 days [SD 1.618], p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

In this multiinstitutional prospective study, the authors found comparable PROs as well as clinical outcomes at 2 years between groups of patients undergoing open or MIS decompression for low-grade spondylolisthesis.