✓ During a 4½-year period, seven patients with delayed onset of an extradural hematoma were seen among 80 consecutively treated cases of extradural hematoma for a frequency of 8.75%. The hematomas were insignificant or not present on initial computerized tomography (CT) scanning. Repeat CT scans within 24 hours of admission showed sizeable hemorrhages. Six hematomas were evacuated, and one was reabsorbed spontaneously. In only one patient did neurological deterioration herald the onset of the extradural hematoma, four patients remained unchanged, and two improved before diagnosis. Intracranial pressure (ICP) was monitored in five patients, four of whom showed intermittent rise in pressure despite preventive treatment. Intracranial hypotension and rapid recovery from peripheral vascular collapse seemed to be contributory factors in the delayed onset of an extradural hematoma. Awareness of this entity, a high degree of vigilance, ICP monitoring, and repeat CT scanning within 24 hours of injury are strongly recommended in these cases, especially after decompression by either surgical or medical means, recovery from shock, or whenever there is evidence of even minimal bleeding under a skull fracture on the initial CT scan.
Bernardo Borovich, Jacob Braun, Joseph N. Guilburd, Menashe Zaaroor, Michel Michich, Lion Levy, Anshel Lemberger, Ian Grushkiewicz, Moshe Feinsod and Izu Schächter
Part 2: Clinical and radiological aspects
Bernardo Borovich, Yaffa Doron, Jacob Braun, Joseph N. Guilburd, Menashe Zaaroor, Dorit Goldsher, Anshel Lemberger, Jan Gruszkiewicz and Moshe Feinsod
check; Globular single meningiomas are generally regarded as benign tumors that can be completely removed. Nevertheless, after a total macroscopic resection including the insertion zone (Grade 1 operation according to Simpson's classification), the incidence of recurrence ranged from 9% to 14% at the 5-year follow-up review. The authors have shown that single meningiomas represent only the visible predominant growth in the midst of a wide neoplastic field in the dura mater. Regional multiplicity in meningiomas would thus seem to be the rule. With this in mind, the authors propose to divide recurrences after Grade 1 operations into 1) true local and 2) false regional. A local recurrence is defined as a regrowth within the limits of the previous dural flap. Regional recurrence is when new growth develops outside the previous craniotomy site; this should not be considered as a recurrence but as a new primary site. These regional recurrences might explain some unexpected late tumor growth occurring after a Grade 1 operation. Five illustrative cases in which regional recurrence was detected by computerized tomography are presented. The authors also propose to add a supplementary grade to Simpson's surgical grading: Grade 0. This operation would entail a wide resection of the dura around the attachment zone of the meningioma. The authors hope that with a Grade 0 operation the incidence of recurrence might be reduced.