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Philine Behrens, Anna Tietze, Elisabeth Walch, Petra Bittigau, Christoph Bührer, Matthias Schulz, Annette Aigner, and Ulrich-Wilhelm Thomale

OBJECTIVE

A standardized guideline for treatment of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in premature infants is still missing. Because an early ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery is avoided due to low body weight and fragility of the patients, the neurosurgical treatment focuses on temporary solutions for CSF diversion as a minimally invasive approach. Neuroendoscopic lavage (NEL) was additionally introduced for early elimination of intraventricular blood components to reduce possible subsequent complications such as shunt dependency, infection, and multiloculated hydrocephalus. The authors report their first experience regarding neurodevelopmental outcome after NEL in this patient cohort.

METHODS

In a single-center retrospective cohort study with 45 patients undergoing NEL, the authors measured neurocognitive development at 2 years with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd Edition, Mental Developmental Index (BSID II MDI) and graded the ability to walk with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). They further recorded medication with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and quantified ventricular and brain volumes by using 3D MRI data sets.

RESULTS

Forty-four patients were alive at 2 years of age. Eight of 27 patients (30%) assessed revealed a fairly normal neurocognitive development (BSID II MDI ≥ 70), 28 of 36 patients (78%) were able to walk independently or with minimal aid (GMFCS 0–2), and 73% did not require AED treatment. Based on MR volume measurements, greater brain volume was positively correlated with BSID II MDI (rs = 0.52, 95% CI 0.08–0.79) and negatively with GMFCS (rs = −0.69, 95% CI −0.85 to −0.42). Based on Bayesian logistic regression, AED treatment, the presence of comorbidities, and also cerebellar pathology could be identified as relevant risk factors for both neurodevelopmental outcomes, increasing the odds more than 2-fold—but with limited precision in estimation.

CONCLUSIONS

Neuromotor outcome assessment after NEL is comparable to previously published drainage, irrigation, and fibrinolytic therapy (DRIFT) study results. A majority of NEL-treated patients showed independent mobility. Further validation of outcome measurements is warranted in an extended setup, as intended by the prospective international multicenter registry for treatment of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (TROPHY).

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Ulrich-Wilhelm Thomale, Astrid K. Gnekow, Daniela Kandels, Brigitte Bison, Pablo Hernáiz Driever, Olaf Witt, Torsten Pietsch, Arend Koch, David Capper, Rolf-Dieter Kortmann, Beate Timmermann, Semi Harrabi, Michèle Simon, Ahmed El Damaty, Juergen Krauss, Martin U. Schuhmann, and Annette Aigner

OBJECTIVE

Neurosurgical treatment is an integral part of the treatment algorithms for pediatric low-grade glioma (LGG), yet patterns of surgical procedures are rarely challenged. The objective of this study was to evaluate surgical treatment patterns in pediatric LGG.

METHODS

The German Societé Internationale d’Oncologie Pédiatrique (SIOP)–LGG 2004 cohort was analyzed to identify relevant patient and tumor characteristics associated with time to death, next surgery, number of resections, and radiological outcome.

RESULTS

A total of 1271 patients underwent 1713 neurosurgical interventions (1 intervention in 947, 2 in 230, 3 in 70, and 4–6 in 24). The median age of the study population was 8.57 years at first surgery, and 46.1% were female. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was found in 4.4%, and 5.4% had tumor dissemination. Three hundred fifty-four patients (27.9%) had chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. The cumulative incidence of second surgery at 10 years was 26%, and was higher for infants, those with spinal and supratentorial midline (SML) tumors, and those with pilomyxoid astrocytomas. The hazard ratio for subsequent surgery was higher given dissemination and noncomplete initial resection, and lower for caudal brainstem and SML tumors. Among 1225 patients with fully documented surgical records and radiological outcome, 613 reached complete remission during the observation period, and 50 patients died. Patients with pilocytic astrocytoma had higher chances for a final complete remission, whereas patients with initial partial or subtotal tumor resection, dissemination, NF1, or primary tumor sites in the spinal cord and SML had lower chances.

CONCLUSIONS

Neurosurgery is a key element of pediatric LGG treatment. In almost 50% of the patients, however, at least some tumor burden will remain during long-term follow-up. This study found that most of these patients reached a stable disease status without further surgeries. Multidisciplinary team decisions must balance the goal of complete resection, risk factors, repeated surgeries, and possible treatment alternatives in a wide range of heterogeneous entities. Procedural details and neurological outcome should be recorded to better assess their impact on long-term outcome.