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Keyoumars Ashkan and Anne J. Moore

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David Uttley, Anne Moore and Daniel J. Archer

✓ Many surgical approaches to the clivus and upper cervical spine have been used in the treatment of skull-base tumors over the past 50 years. However, the outcome of surgery has been complicated by difficulties of access to the whole clivus, together with pharyngeal wound breakdown with subsequent development of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula and meningitis. A technique described recently utilized Le Fort I osteotomy to improve exposure of the clivus in the approach to vertebrobasilar aneurysms, facilitating control of the aneurysm and reducing the risk of posttraumatic CSF fistula. The same approach, via maxillotomy, has permitted partial or total tumor resection in 13 consecutive procedures carried out at Atkinson Morley's Hospital on 10 patients presenting with tumors of the skull base. Neurological status was either improved or unchanged in all patients postoperatively, and pain relief was obtained in five of eight cases in which this was a presenting symptom. No patient developed a CSF fistula following surgery. Cosmetic results were good, and no problems related to malocclusion were reported. This approach may be used to advantage in the surgical treatment of skull-base tumors, at initial presentation, and can be repeated without undue difficulty should there be tumor recurrence.

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Gill E. Sviri, Rune Aaslid, Colleen M. Douville, Anne Moore and David W. Newell

Object

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the time course for cerebral autoregulation (AR) recovery following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI)

Methods

Thirty-six patients (27 males and 9 females, mean ± SEM age 33 ± 15.1 years) with severe TBI underwent serial dynamic AR studies with leg cuff deflation as a stimulus, until recovery of the AR responses was measured.

Results

The AR was impaired (AR index < 2.8) in 30 (83%) of 36 patients on Days 3–5 after injury, and in 19 individuals (53%) impairments were found on Days 9–11 after the injury. Nine (25%) of 36 patients exhibited a poor AR response (AR index < 1) on postinjury Days 12–14, which eventually recovered on Days 15–23. Fifty-eight percent of the patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3–5, 50% of those with diffuse brain injury, 54% of those with elevated intracranial pressure, and 40% of those with poor outcome had no AR recovery in the first 11 days after injury.

Conclusions

Autoregulation recovery after severe TBI can be delayed, and failure to recover during the 2nd week after injury occurs mainly in patients with a lower Glasgow Coma Scale score, diffuse brain injury, elevated ICP, or unfavorable outcome. The finding suggests that perfusion pressure management should be considered in some of the patients for a period of at least 2 weeks.

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Huma Sethi, Anne Moore, James Dervin, Andrew Clifton and J. Emma MacSweeney

Object. In this retrospective study conducted at Atkinson Morley's Hospital and Middlesbrough General Hospital, the authors analyzed 100 matched patients who had suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) to determine whether the technical procedure by which aneurysms are treated affects the development of chronic hydrocephalus.

Methods. Four hundred seventy-five patients presented with SAH between 1995 and 1998. Exclusion criteria included posterior circulation aneurysms, multiple aneurysms, electively clipped or embolized aneurysms, angiographically undetected SAH, patients who died within 1 month of neurosurgical intervention, and patients with the same aneurysm location but a different Fisher grade.

The authors matched 50 patients who underwent embolization of their aneurysms with another 50 who had similar Fisher grades and aneurysm types and underwent clipping of their aneurysms. The maximum incidence of ruptured aneurysms occurred in patients who were between 41 and 60 years of age, with women preponderant in both study groups. In each group, 27 patients had anterior communicating artery aneurysm, 13 had posterior communicating artery aneurysm, seven had middle cerebral artery aneurysm, and three had internal carotid artery aneurysm. The lesions in three patients in each group were Fisher Grade I, in 23 patients they were Fisher Grade II, in 14 they were Fisher Grade III, and 10 patients had Fisher Grade IV SAH. Nine patients among those with clipped aneurysms and eight of the patients who underwent embolization had hydrocephalus for which they needed intervention. These interventions included lumbar puncture, ventricular drainage, and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement; three patients in each group needed VP shunt placement.

Conclusions. The technical procedure used to treat aneurysms, whether clipping or embolization, does not significantly affect the development of chronic hydrocephalus. However, a larger sample of patients is needed for accurate comparisons and stronger conclusions.

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M. Sean Kincaid, Michael J. Souter, Miriam M. Treggiari, N. David Yanez, Anne Moore and Arthur M. Lam

Object

The goal of this study was to assess the accuracy of the routine clinical use of transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography and SPECT in predicting angiographically demonstrated vasospasm.

Methods

Following receipt of institutional review board approval, the authors reviewed the records of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage who had been admitted between 2004 and 2005 and underwent TCD ultrasonography and SPECT evaluations within 24 hours of cerebral angiography. Patients were categorized based on the presence or absence of vasospasm and/or hypoperfusion in the anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs), middle cerebral arteries (MCAs), and basilar arteries (BAs) or posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) according to each imaging modality. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of an angiographically demonstrated vasospasm also detected on TCD ultrasonography and SPECT.

Results

One hundred fifty-two patients (101 women) with a mean age (± standard deviation) of 53 ± 13 years were included in the study. In the ACA, the OR of a vasospasm on TCD ultrasonography was 27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3–243) and on SPECT 0.97 (95% CI 0.36–2.6); in the MCA, 17 (95% CI 5.4–55) and 2.0 (95% CI 0.71–5.5), respectively; in the BA, 4.4 (95% CI 0.72–27) and 5.6 (95% CI 0.89–36), respectively. There was no substantial change in the relative odds of a vasospasm when the findings on TCD ultrasonography and SPECT were considered jointly.

Conclusions

Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography appears to be highly predictive of an angiographically demonstrated vasospasm in the MCA and ACA; however, its diagnostic accuracy was lower with regard to vasospasm in the BA. Single-photon emission computed tomography was not predictive of a vasospasm in any of the vascular territories assessed.

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Christopher Nutting, Michael Brada, Lucy Brazil, Ahmen Sibtain, Frank Saran, Charlotte Westbury, Anne Moore, David G. T. Thomas, Daphne Traish and Susan Ashley

Object. This study was undertaken to assess the long-term efficacy and toxicity of conventional fractionated external-beam radiation in the treatment of benign skull base meningioma.

Methods. This is a retrospective study of 82 patients with histologically verified benign skull base meningioma treated by surgery followed by fractionated external-beam radiation at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1962 and 1992. The 5- and 10-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 92% and 83%, respectively, with the site of disease being the only independent prognostic factor for tumor control according to multivariate analysis. The 10-year PFS rate for patients with sphenoid ridge meningiomas was 69% compared with 90% for those with tumors in the parasellar region. The overall 10-year survival rate was 71%, with performance status and patient age found to be significant independent prognostic factors. Six patients had worsening vision, which was due to cataract in five cases and retinopathy in one. There were no recorded cases of cranial nerve neuropathy.

Conclusions. The excellent long-term tumor control and length of survival with minimal toxicity associated with conventional external-beam radiation should serve as a baseline for evaluation of new treatment strategies such as radiosurgery and skull base surgery.