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Brandon A. Sherrod, Winson S. Ho, Alec Hedlund, Anne Kennedy, Betsy Ostrander, and Robert J. Bollo

OBJECTIVE

Prenatal imaging has several critical roles in the diagnosis and management of myelomeningocele, including specific family counseling and the selection of fetal surgery or postnatal repair. In this study, the authors compared the accuracy of fetal MRI and prenatal ultrasonography (US) in predicting the spinal lesion level and assessed the correlation between imaging findings and motor function as independently evaluated by a physical therapist (PT) after birth.

METHODS

A retrospective review of demographic and clinical data was performed to identify children who had been treated with postnatal myelomeningocele closure at a single institution between March 2013 and December 2018. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they had all of the following: prenatal US identifying the neural tube defect level, fetal MRI identifying the neural tube defect level, and postoperative PT evaluation identifying the motor deficit level. Statistical analysis was performed using Cohen’s kappa coefficient to compare the US- and MRI-demonstrated lesion level and correlate these findings with the motor level assigned postnatally by a PT via manual muscle testing.

RESULTS

Thirty-four patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean gestational age at US was 23.0 ± 4.7 weeks, whereas the mean gestational age at MRI was 24.0 ± 4.1 weeks. The mean time from surgery to the PT evaluation was 2.9 ± 1.9 days. Prenatal US and MRI were in agreement within one spinal level in 74% of cases (25/34, k = 0.43). When comparing the US-demonstrated spinal level with the PT-assigned motor level, the two were in agreement within one level in 65% of cases (22/34, k = 0.40). When comparing MRI-demonstrated spinal level with the PT motor level, the two were in agreement within one level in 59% of cases (20/34, k = 0.37). MRI and US were within two spinal levels of the PT evaluation in 79.4% and 85.3% of cases, respectively. MRI and US agreed within two levels in 97.1% of cases. Prenatal US and MRI were equivalent when comparing the difference between the imaged level and the postnatal motor deficit level (mean level difference: 1.12 ± 1.16 vs 1.17 ± 1.11, p = 0.86).

CONCLUSIONS

Prenatal US and MRI equivalently predicted the postnatal motor deficit level in children with myelomeningocele. These data may be valuable in prenatal prognostication.

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Natalie Limoges, Betsy Ostrander, Anne Kennedy, Paula J. Woodward, and Robert J. Bollo

OBJECTIVE

Advances in prenatal imaging have facilitated improvements in the fetal diagnosis of congenital anomalies. Asymmetric ventriculomegaly, interhemispheric cyst, and dysgenesis of the corpus callosum (AVID) is a constellation of congenital anomalies reported in fetal imaging. However, few data are available regarding postnatal outcomes of infants and children with a fetal diagnosis of AVID. The authors sought to report the neurodevelopmental outcomes of patients diagnosed with AVID before birth at a single institution.

METHODS

An institutional fetal imaging database was queried to identify cases with ventriculomegaly, interhemispheric cyst, and dysgenesis of the corpus callosum over a 10-year study period from 2000 to 2019. Overall, 41 maternal-infant dyads who met imaging criteria for AVID were identified; medical records were reviewed for prenatal variables including gestational age at birth, perinatal complications including fetal demise, and postnatal variables including demographics, mortality, hydrocephalus diagnosis and management, epilepsy, and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years or the last follow-up.

RESULTS

Among 41 patients, 25 (61%) were male. A slight majority of patients (55%) were born before 36 weeks of gestational age, and 27 patients (68%) were delivered via cesarean section because their head size precluded vaginal delivery. There were 8 incidences of fetal demise, 1 pregnancy was terminated, and 32 patients were born alive. Neonatal or early infant death occurred in 5 patients. Two children died during follow-up after the neonatal period (ages 7 months and 7 years). Twenty-six children survived to at least the 2-year follow-up, all of whom required treatment for hydrocephalus. Of those 26 children, 12 (46%) had a diagnosis of epilepsy, 14 (54%) could sit independently, 4 (16%) were in mainstream school, 16 (62%) had expressive language, and 7 (28%) had near-normal development without seizures.

CONCLUSIONS

Among 41 maternal-fetal dyads with AVID, a majority of children survived to the 2-year follow-up, although all developed hydrocephalus. Many continued to have seizures, but expressive language use, attendance at mainstream school, and near-normal development without seizures were not infrequent. These data are critical for prenatal counseling and to establish the natural history of a diagnosis with limited outcome data.